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Apricot Ice Cream

Apricot Ice Cream

Ice Cream, as we know it, was a relatively new invention in Jane Austen’s day. Enjoyed in Italy and France in the 17th c, the first recorded English recipe was published in 1718.

Recipes featuring fruit not available until early summer were, no doubt, a treat reserved for the wealthy, who could afford to buy their ice and keep it cool in ice houses, until wanted. If you did not have access to ice in the summer, you could always visit the local Pastry Cook for a variety of sweets, including ice cream. Molland’s, in Bath, was one such establishment.

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In Jane Austen’s, The Beautiful Cassandra, her heroine “…then proceeded to a Pastry-cook’s, where she devoured six ices, refused to pay for them, knocked down the Pastry Cook & walked away.” Slapstick comedy does seem to have been the name of the game in Austen’s early work. Mr. Punch would be proud. The following recipe for Apricot Ice Cream is taken from Cooking with Jane Austen and Friends, and is based on one first printed by Hannah Glasse in her Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy, 1755.

Apricot Ice Cream

To Make Ice-Cream
Pare and stone twelve ripe apricots, and scald them, beat them fine in a mortar, add to them six ounces of double refined sugar, and a pint of scalding cream, and work it through a sieve; put it in a tin with a close cover, and set it in a tub of ice broke small, with four handfuls of salt mixed among the ice. When you see your cream grows thick round the edges of your tin, stir it well and put it in again till it is quite thick; when the cream is all froze up, take it out of the tin, and put it into the mould you intend to turn it out of; put on the lid and have another tub of salt and ice ready as before; put the mould in the middle, and lay the ice under and over it; let it stand for four hours, and never turn it out till the moment you want it, then dip the mould in cold spring water, and turn it into a plate. You may do any sort of fruit the same way. HG

  • 12 ripe Apricots
  • 170 g / 6 oz / ¾ cup Powdered Sugar
  • 470 ml / 16 fl oz / 2 cups of Cream

Bring a saucepan of water to a boil. Score the bottom of each apricot and place them in the pan. Let them boil furiously for 3 minutes. Drain the apricots in a colander and rinse them in cold water. The skins will now slip easily from them. Slice them in half and remove the pits.

Place the apricots, cream and sugar into a blender and purée until smooth. Pour this mixture into a dish with a tight fitting lid and place it in the freezer.

After 1 ½ hours, stir the ice cream so that it is smooth once more and return it to the freezer. Continue this process every few hours until it is semi-hard. Spoon the mixture into prepared moulds or allow it to harden in the dish and serve it in small scoops. You may also use an ice Cream maker to speed this process and produce a uniformly creamy ice cream. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions.

Serves 6-8

 

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Fruit Flavored Water: A Refreshing Drink

lemons

Water with lemon may be the staple complimentary drink of American restaurants, but the drink actually has British origins.  A recipe for Lemon Flavored Water (A Refreshing Drink) appears in Maria Eliza Ketelby Rundell’s New System of Domestic Cookery, surprisingly, perhaps, under the heading “Cookery for the Sick”. There are, however, many benefits to drinking water with lemon, especially when made, as Mrs. Rundell suggest, with warm or hot water.

lemons

One blogger even went so far as to suggest 10 Medical Benefits to Drinking Lemon Water, including clear skin, fresh breath, system cleansing properties, weight loss and even enhanced hydration, among others.  During the summer months, it can be difficult to drink as much as is recommended (at least 8 8-oz glasses a day). With so much to recommend it, I’m surely inspired to try one of these Regency recipes to perk up my routine. Continue reading Fruit Flavored Water: A Refreshing Drink

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Orange Cream

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The orange wine will want our care soon. But in the meantime, for elegance and ease and luxury, the Hattons and Milles’ dine here to-day, and I shall eat ice and drink French wine, and be above vulgar economy. Luckily the pleasures of friendship, of unreserved conversation, of similarity of taste and opinions, will make good amends for orange wine.
-Jane Austen to Cassandra
June 30, 1808

By Jane Austen’s day, oranges were no longer a novelty, though they were certainly an expensive delight. Orange Marmalade, also known as Dundee Marmalade, was developed in Scotland and so popular that, by 1797,  James Keiller and his mother Janet opened a factory to produce “Dundee Marmalade”,a preserve distinguished by thick chunks of bitter Seville orange rind. The business prospered, and remains a signature marmalade producer today. Martha Lloyd’s household book contains a recipe for “Scotch Marmalade” and the Austen’s were known to bottle their own Orange Wine.

There are no reports of sweet oranges occurring in the wild. In general, it is believed that sweet orange trees have originated in Southeast Asia, northeastern India or southern Chinaand that they were first cultivated in China around 2500 BC.

Continue reading Orange Cream

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Knit a Pineapple Purse

pineapple-reticule

pineapple purse

The Pineapple Purse:

This  Pineapple shaped reticule resides in the Kyoto Museum’s 1800-1810 collection. In describing this bag, the museum comments,

This small bag (called “reticule” at that time) was elaborately and three-dimensionally knitted into the shape of a pineapple. Motifs of pineapples and other exotic articles associated with the tropics became popular because of the influence of Napoleon Bonaparte’s wife Joséphine, the then fashion leader, who was from the Island of Martinique.

It is absolutely charming and amazingly, the instructions for a similar looking reticule appeared in  The Lady’s Assistant for Executing Useful and Fancy Designs in Knitting Netting, and Crochet Work by Mrs. Jane Gaugain in 1841. Those instructions have been reproduced below, though recently, a new, updated pattern for this purse has been created from the original pattern. The updated pattern and photos of the completed project can be found here: http://www.gancedo.eu/content/pine-apple-bag

KNIT A PINEAPPLE PURSE:
This pinapple purse is knit to imitate the natural colour of the fruit as much as possible, still keeping the bag as bright in hues as consistency will permit. The top part is worked in four shades of green, of seven rows each, commencing with lightest, and working in succession to dark. This represents the leaves. The centre, or fruit part, is worked in shades of yellow, down to a rich brown, four in number, beginning with the lightest, and working 36 rounds of each; again with green finish as described in the working receipt.

The cast-on row looks handsome with a row of gilt beads; also on the centre stitch of each knob of fruit part there should be a bead, but it may be omitted if not wished. The green part for leaves is worked on right side, and is the right or outside part; the centre part of bag is like the wrong side of knitting, as well as the green part, at bottom. When the bag is finished, it is drawn at the termination of the top leaves; the bottom is finished with a bunch of green satin ribbon, rounded at the points like leaves.

Working Receipt.

Cast on with light-green common-sized purse twist on No. 19 wires, 96 on first wire, 96 on second wire, and 128 on third wire; work a plain round after the cast-on round.

1st Round, P6, 0, P, 0, P6, A; repeat all round.

2nd Round, *P6, 0, P, O, P6, A; repeat all round.

Repeat as second round 5 more rounds.

2nd Shade of Green.

8th Round, repeat as second round 7 more rounds.

* Observe you have here seven plain stitches before you make an open stitch, the first of which has nothing to do with the six plain, merely work it off before the six, as it is one of those three you knit into one, and will be required to finish the A on the last wire j the beginning and ending of every wire during the working of green will be the same as this.

3rd Shade of Green. 16th Round, repeat as second round 7 more rounds.

4tth Shade of Green.

24th Round, repeat as second round 7 more rounds.

32nd Round, with light yellow, turn and work a plain round. It is necessary here to observe, the A of the yellow must be transposed so as to come directly under the 0, P, 0, of green. Should you have more loops than six before taking in the three loops, lift them on to the right hand wire; do the same with the other two wires; having done so, you have not again to change any of the loops off the wires, as the following receipt is so arranged,—

33rd Round, P6, A, P6, 0, P, 0; repeat all round.

34th Round, P5, A, P6, 0, P, 0, P; repeat all round.

35th Bound, P4, A, P6, 0, P, 0, P2; repeat all round.

36th Round, P3, A, P6, 0, P, 0, P3; repeat all round.

37th Round, P2, A, P6, 0, P, O, P4; repeat all round.

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Repeat from 32nd to 49th round twice with third yellow

Repeat from 32nd to 49th round twice with fourth yellow; (if wished to be longer, add what is required in this shade.)

Repeat with each shade of green once from 32 to 49th round

P6, A, all round} Repeat these two rounds till the bag is almost closed, then draw
Plain, all round } it together with a needle.
This bag may be worked in shades of Berlin wool, on No. 16 wires.

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Mr. Collin’s Garden

kitchen garden

 

“…the chief of the time between breakfast and dinner was now passed by him (Mr. Collins) either at work in the garden, or in reading and writing, and looking out of window in his own book room, which fronted the road.”
Chapter 30 Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen

A vegetable garden and small orchard were a necessity for a country parson. The produce provided food for his table and helped to stretch a modest income. In Pride and Prejudice, we are also told that Mrs. Collins encouraged this occupation in order to gain a respite from her loquacious husband.


When Mr. Collins gave Sir William, Elizabeth, and Maria a tour of his garden, Jane Austen is silent as to what they were shown. Indeed, why bore her contemporary readers with a list of well know plants that would hardly forward the plot of her romance. At a distance of some 200 years, we may well wonder what plants might have grown in Mr. Collins’s garden.

Apple orchards have been a part of English gardens, since medieval times. If space was very tight, the trees may even have been espaliered to the garden walls. Sweet eating apples must come from grafted trees, since all apple seeds produce only tart apples. Grafting was well understood, since medieval times. Apples provided easily stored fruit for eating, cooking in tarts, and for ciders. In 1658, John Evelyn, the famous diarist, wrote The French Gardener: instructing how to cultivate all sorts of Fruit-trees, a how-to book on cultivating fruit trees.


Espaliered trees, like this one in the Chawton House Library garden, were pruned to grow against a wall or wire frame.

Due to the wet climate, vegetables were often cultivated in raised beds that would drain well. Vegetable beds were created by surrounding an area with planks, staked to the ground and filled with earth.


This photo of the gardens at Jane Austen's Chawton Cottage shows a planked garden.

Root crops might include potatoes and carrots. Potatoes were introduced to England from the New World in the late 16th century. Cold weather during the Icelandic volcanic eruptions, in the 1780s, helped to promote acceptance of the cold tolerant plant. Potatoes also store well in cool, dry, and dark rooms. Carrots came to England, from Holland, in the 1740s, and recipes for soups and puddings using carrots began to appear at that time, also.

Mr. Collins probably grew pumpkins. The American plant was introduced to Tudor England by the French. However, Charlotte would most likely cook pumpkin by cutting off the top of the pumpkin, scooping out the seeds and filling it with a mixture of milk, honey, apples and spices. She would then replace the top and roast the entire pumpkin in hot ashes.

Climbing vegetables, such as peas, were generally supported by cone shaped trellises made of bundles of willow branches, tied together near the top. Peas probably came to England with the Romans, since the English word has Latin origins. The green vegetable became very popular by the 17th century, particularly when served fresh. Peas can be dried and stored for long periods of time, making them a winter staple.

Cucumbers were probably introduced to England by the Romans. Pickling is an ancient art, so Charlotte, who often helped in the kitchen at home, probably put up pickles. Curiously they were called cowcumbers at this time.


Hugh Thomson's frustrated gardener (Northanger Abbey)

There would, almost certainly, be a row of cabbages in the garden Mr. Collins tended. Cabbages are supposed to have been spread by the Celts, so they had long been present in England. Greens such as lettuce and spinach would also have been planted in the garden. Lettuce probably arrived with the Romans. Spinach came to England from Spain in the 14th century, probably brought back by pilgrims who visited Santiago de Compostela.

Salads dressed with vinaigrettes came into vogue, in England, after the French Revolution forced many French refugees to flee to England.

Tomatoes would probably not be found in Mr. Collins’s garden. Many people believed that they were poisonous and would not eat them, because they belong to the nightshade family. Tomatoes were not widely eaten until the 1820s.

Herbs would have been important plants in any garden of this period. Lavender would be grown and dried, for use in sachets, to be placed in cloths chests. Lavender smells nice but prevents the ravages of insects on clothing made of natural fibers, as all clothes, at that time were. Lavender was also used in soap making. Mint was used in sachets and in cooking. Dill would have been used in pickling and sprinkled over some breads.

The parsley, sage, rosemary, and thyme of the old song would also have grown in the garden. Parsley had come to England by Elizabethan times and was an important garnish and ingredient by Jane Austen’s time. Sage was already used with fatty meats such as sausage, and with sage Derby cheese. Surprising, sage was also used as a tea. Rosemary was commonly used as an aromatic herb, as a hair rinse and to season lamb. Thyme probably arrived with the Romans. The herb was used on meats and in stews. It was also burnt as incense.

The walkway approaching the house would probably have been surrounded by flowers and shrubs. However, we would not see roses or bulb flowers, which were still expensive imports, in Jane Austen’s day. Fruit trees and native foxgloves and hollyhocks would be the most likely decorative plantings at a country parson’s house. Hollyhock seeds had come back from the crusades, in the crusader’s saddle bags, and were long established in England.

Though a tour of Mr. Collins’s garden, may seem a bit silent without commentary from Mr. Collins, hopefully a good idea of the similarities and differences of that time and place was conveyed. I beg you will forgive me, for taking over that earnest man’s role.


 

Written for the Jane Austen Online Magazine Sharon Wagoner, Curator of The Georgian Index. Visit her site for a historical tour through Regency London. Her novel, The Coronation, is available for free, for the Amazon kindle.

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Plant a Regency Kitchen Garden


I consider the kitchen garden as of very considerable importance as pot herbs, sallads, and roots of various kinds are useful in housekeeping. Having plenty of them at hand, a family will not be so likey to run into the error, which is too common in the country, of eating flesh in too great a proportion to health.

Samuel Deane, 1822


Cottage gardens, like those at Chawton combine flower and vegetable plants with happy abandon. Tomatoes and beans share space with Blackeyed Susans and Delphinium. Herbs grow with wild abandon among the borders and fruit trees and bushes are planted for beauty as much as fruitfulness.

On larger estates, specific tracts of lands, often several acres, were given over to the cultivation of all the “sallads and green things” to be eaten by the family over the course of the year. Cold frames, green houses and hot houses allowed for more exotic fruits and longer growing seasons. Specialized buildings, like Northanger Abbey’s Pinery allowed pineapples and other unobtainable fruits to be grown at hand.

Here, behind fences or walls, to deter both human and animal theft, the gardener would culitvate all manner of vegetable, herb and useful flower. Considering that most of what was eaten on the manner throughout the year came from these crops, it was a job of no mean importance.

Many of the fruits used in the daily housekeeping would have also been grown in the kitchen garden– it was common to grown fruit trees trained along the walls of the garden or house –as these photos from the Chawton Great House show. Donwell Abbey’s gardens also boasted a separate orchard and strawberry beds.

In The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. (1747), Hannah Glasse gives the following list of garden edibles by month, thereby giving an idea of what would be grown in a well stocked kitchen garden of the time.

The easiest way to create a kitchen garden of Austen’s era is to combine heirloom vegetable plants along with the flowers in a cottage garden setting, like we have described in another post. The vegetables currently grown at Chawton Cottage include: potatoes, cucumbers, runner beans, melons, squash (marrows), pumpkins, carrots, rhubarb, parsnips, beetroots, radishes, coriander, peas, onions, garlic and tomatoes.

Heirloom seeds are relatively easy to find, thanks to the internet. Many sites, like the gift shop at Old Sturbridge Village, Heirloomseeds.com, and Realseeds.co.uk offer a wide variety of vegetables and flowers that are very close if not identical to the plants grown in Jane Austen’s garden during her lifetime. Not only will you enjoy the benefits of homegrown goodness, you will experiance a variety of produce unknown in the commercially grown vegetables available at your local grocer’s.

 




For further information on planting your own Regency Kitchen garden or cottage garden, turn to In the Garden with Jane Austen by Kim Wilson.

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Snapdragon

Snapdragon


“Christmas gambol: raisins and almonds being put into a bowl of brandy, and the candles extinguished, the spirit is set on fire, and the company scramble for the raisins.”

Francis Grose
Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue (1811)


Snap-dragon (also known as Flap-dragon, Snapdragon, or Flapdragon) was a parlour game popular from about the 16th to 19th centuries. It was played during the winter, particularly on Christmas Eve. Brandy was heated and placed in a wide shallow bowl; raisins were placed in the brandy which was then set alight. Typically, lights were extinguished or dimmed to increase the eerie effect of the blue flames playing across the liquor. The aim of the game was to pluck the raisins out of the burning brandy and eat them, at the risk of being burnt. Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language (1755) describes it as “a play in which they catch raisins out of burning brandy and, extinguishing them by closing the mouth, eat them”. According to an eighteenth-century article in Richard Steele’s Tatler magazine, “the wantonness of the thing was to see each other look like a demon, as we burnt ourselves, and snatched out the fruit.” Snap-dragon was played in England and the United States, but there is insufficient evidence of the practice in Scotland, or other countries.

The liquid used in Snap-dragon was typically brandy, although similar flammable liquors could also be used. Traditionally, raisins were the treat to be snatched; William Sandys specifies Málaga raisins. Other treats, however, could also be used. Of these, almonds were the most common alternative or addition, but currants, candied fruit, figs, grapes, and plums also featured. Salt could also be sprinkled in the bowl. The low bowl was typically placed in the middle of a table to prevent damage from the inevitable splashes of burning brandy. In one variation a Christmas pudding is placed in the centre of the bowl with raisins around it.

Most sources describe Snap-dragon as a Christmas tradition, however Blain suggests that in the United States it was played at Halloween instead and Platt notes that

‘The game was one particular to Halloween or Christmas or Twelfth Night; I will not specify which, because in the first place I do not know, and in the second place if I were to make a mistake I would be held up to ridicule and all my statements overthrown”

There were several other traditions surrounding the game of Snap-dragon. Mary F. Blain describes the belief that the person who snatches the most treats out of the brandy will meet their true love within a year. In another tradition, one of the raisins contains a gold button and becomes ‘the lucky raisin’. The person who fishes the raisin out can claim a reward or boon of their choosing. In the short story Master Sandy’s Snapdragon by Elbridge S. Brooks, Snap-dragon is played in the royal household of James I of England. Young Prince Charles (later Charles I of England) catches the lucky raisin and, after much prevarication, asks for the freedom of Walter Raleigh.

According to Robert Chambers’ Book of Days (1879) the game was accompanied by a chant:
Here he comes with flaming bowl,
Don’t he mean to take his toll,
Snip! Snap! Dragon!

Take care you don’t take too much,
Be not greedy in your clutch,
Snip! Snap! Dragon!

With his blue and lapping tongue
Many of you will be stung,
Snip! Snap! Dragon!

For he snaps at all that comes
Snatching at his feast of plums,
Snip! Snap! Dragon!

But Old Christmas makes him come,
Though he looks so fee! fa! fum!
Snip! Snap! Dragon!

Don’t ‘ee fear him but be bold —
Out he goes his flames are cold,
Snip! Snap! Dragon!

The first reference to Snap-dragon explicitly as a parlour game is in Francis Grose’s Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue (1811): “Christmas gambol: raisins and almonds being put into a bowl of brandy, and the candles extinguished, the spirit is set on fire, and the company scramble for the raisins.”

By the mid-19th century Snap-dragon was firmly entrenched as a Christmas parlour game, and it is in this sense that it is referenced in 1836, in Charles Dickens’ The Pickwick Papers and in 1861, in Anthony Trollope’s novel Orley Farm. Lewis Carroll, in Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) describes “A snap-dragon-fly. Its body is made of plum pudding, its wings of holly-leaves, and its head is a raisin burning in brandy.”


In the English play Lingua (1607) the practice is said to come from classical antiquity: “when Hercules had killed the flaming dragon of Hesperia with the apples of that orchard, he made this fiery meat; in memory whereof he named it Snapdragon.” Brooks’ Master Sandy’s Snapdragon suggests another mythical origin, relating the fire of snap-dragons to Saint George and the dragon.
Chambers suggests that it hearkens back to druidic fire-worship. According to the Oxford English Dictionary entry for flapdragon, “the original sense may have been identical with a dialectal sense of snapdragon, viz. a figure of a dragon’s head with snapping jaws, carried about by the mummers at Christmas; but of this there is no trace in our quot[ation]s”.

Michael Faraday, in his essay The Chemical History of a Candle (1860), suggested that the raisins in Snap-dragon act like miniature wicks. The concept is similar to that of burning brandy on top of Christmas puddings — the brandy is burning, but is not burning at a high enough temperature to consume the raisins. Nevertheless, children often burnt their hands or mouths playing this game, which may have led to the practice mostly dying out in the early 20th century.

Snapdragon is a dangerous game and should not be played without proper preparation and supervision. Some suggestions for safer play can be found here:
School of the Seasons.com.

Historical information supplied by Wikipedia

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The Cost of Living in Jane Austen’s England

Vulgar Economy

The orange wine will want our care soon. But in the meantime, for elegance and ease and luxury, the Hattons and Milles’ dine here to-day, and I shall eat ice and drink French wine, and be above vulgar economy. Luckily the pleasures of friendship, of unreserved conversation, of similarity of taste and opinions, will make good amends for orange wine.
Jane Austen to Cassandra
Godmersham: Thursday June 20, 1808

Regency CurrencyThe cost of postage had risen in 1784 as the Chancellor of the Exchequer explained that the increases would be on the mail instead of a tax on coal. The income from letters was used to boost the funds of the Government, and the prices were raised again in 1797, 1801, 1805 and 1812.

During the wars against France (1793-1815) the income was regarded as a tax levied to help the war effort, but once Napoleon had been defeated, there was a backlash of feeling against the high rates. By this time, it was often hard to decide if it was worth sending a letter at all: the cost of a letter could be as much as a day’s wages for a working man. It became a matter of importance to get around the cost in one way or another. For instance it was cheaper to send a letter from London to Scotland by the coastal shipping – 8 pence instead of by road which cost 13½ pence (1sh.1½d).

Because the recipient usually paid the cost of the delivery, it was possible to arrange to send an empty letter (or one with an agreed error in the name or address) – so that the recipient would know the handwriting, realise that all was well with the sender, so refuse to accept it, and not have to pay.

To give some idea of comparative costs:
in 1825 on a suggested budget of £250 a year given by Mrs Rundell in her New System of Domestic Economy for ‘a gentleman, his lady, three children and a Maid-Servant’, where food took £2.11.7d a week or £134.2.4d a year, the biggest single item was:

  • 10s 6d a week for butcher’s meat (18 lbs at 7d a pound, or about ½ lb each day)followed by:
  • 7s for beer and other liquors
  • 6s for bread
  • 3s 6d for 3½ lb butter
  • 3s 6d for fish
  • 3s for sugar (4½ lb at 8d a lb) and
  • 2s 6d for tea (5 ozs at 8s a pound)

  • two pounds of candles cost 1s 2d a week in 1825
  • coal and wood 3s 9d
  • rent and taxes were allowed at only £25 a year
  • clothes (for 5) £36
  • the maid £16
  • the education of 3 children £10.10s.

There were small margins for recreation, medical expenses and savings, but although the family probably had more than enough food in total, it devoted only 3d each week a week to milk (2 pints) and 6d each to fruit and vegetables.

However, on an income of £1000 per annum the budget is quite different! Now there is an establishment of 10, for besides the same-sized family there is a cook, a housemaid, a nursery-maid, a coachman and a footman, whose combined wages are £87 a year ; there is also a ‘Chariot, Coach, Phaeton or other four-wheel carriage, and a pair of horses’, costing £65-17s a year in keep. The family consumes 52½ lb of meat a week – a daily allowance of ¾ lb for each person – there is now a guinea a week for drink, and ¾ lb of butter for each person. The smallest items are still fruit and vegetables (9d per person per week) and eggs and milk (4½d per week).*

To put this in a recognised context, in Sense & Sensibility Mrs John Dashwood, trying to dissuade her husband from giving his mother and sisters any money at all, points out that they will be so well off, they will need nothing.

… Altogether, they will have five hundred a year amongst them, and what on earth can four women want for more than that? They will live so cheap! Their housekeeping will be nothing at all. They will have no carriage, no horses, and hardly any servants; they will keep no company, and can have no expenses of any kind!

Only conceive how comfortable they will be! Five hundred a year! I am sure I cannot imagine how they will spend half of it.”

The Dashwood DaughtersBut, if, in addition to feeding/clothing the four ladies of the house, they would have to provide living quarters/food/uniform for the house servant, and if they grew their own food, they would have to employ a gardener – more outlay. Allowing for the fact that they would probably make their own clothes, they would still have to buy the materials. It would not be luxurious living by any standards.

So, it does seem as though the parsimonious Mrs John Dashwood could have convinced herself that her four indigent in-laws could manage with no financial help from their brother.

Ron and Eunice Shanahan have collected British postal history for nearly 40 years. Though their period letters were originally purchased for the postal markings, over the years, the contents of the letters became of as much interest as the postal markings. Eunice writes for Stamp News Australasia, and has managed to sneak a fair bit of social history into the articles. The Shanahans host the Regency Postal Page.

*Taken from John Burnett, A History of the Cost of Living (Penguin Books, 1969)

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