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Ozias Humphrey (1742-1810)

Ozias Humphrey (8 September 1742 – 9 March 1810) was a leading English painter of portrait miniatures, later oils and pastels, of the 18th century. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1791, and in 1792 he was appointed Portrait Painter in Crayons to the King (i.e. pastels).

Born and schooled in Honiton, Devon, Ozias Humphrey was attracted by the gallery of casts opened by the Duke of Richmond and came to London to study art at Shipley’s school. He also studied art in Bath (under Samuel Collins, taking over his practice in 1762); in Bath, he lodged with Thomas Linley. As a young artist, his talent was encouraged by Thomas Gainsborough and Sir Joshua Reynolds, among others. His problems with his sight, the result of a fall from his horse in the early 1770s, which ultimately led to blindness, forced him to give up miniature painting and paint larger works in oils and pastel.

Ozias Humphrey travelled to Italy in 1773 with his great friend George Romney, stopping en route at Knole, near Sevenoaks in Kent, where the Duke of Dorset commissioned several works from him. His stay in Italy lasted until 1777.

On his return, his numerous subjects included George Stubbs (1777), fellow academician Dominic Serres, and the chemist Joseph Priestley. He compiled a fifty-page manuscript, A Memoir of George Stubbs, based on what Stubbs had related to him; it is the only contemporary biography of the “Painter of the English Enlightenment”. This was edited and privately published in the 1870s and republished in 2005. He also knew William Blake and commissioned copies of some of his illustrated books.

From 1785 to 1787, he travelled to India, producing many miniatures and sketches. He was elected a member of the Royal Academy in 1791. In 1792 he was appointed Portrait Painter in Crayons (Pastels) to the King. Most of his many portraits of the Royal Family are still in the Royal Collection.


In 1788 Ozias Humphrey painted what may, perhaps be his most famous painting, a portrait claimed to be of a young Jane Austen, known as the “Rice” portrait after its current owners. This portrait, painted, so family legend goes, was a “sister” piece to a similar portrait of Cassandra (now lost) and the famous portrait of Edward Austen-Knight on his return from the continent. The portrait of Edward has never been questioned, but the full length portrait of Jane was, for a time, misattributed to Johann Zoffany, which has caused later researchers to doubt it’s authenticity and suggest that the “sitter” is another member of the Austen family.

Still, family members who knew and remembered Jane did not seem to question that this portrait was indeed Jane Austen of Pride and Prejudice fame, painted about the time that her juvenilia was being written. The current owners, the Rice family, have spent a great deal of time authenticating the portrait, tracings it’s origins from its painting (perhaps at Uncle Francis Austen’s home, Sevenoaks?) to its current homes with them. Their research can be found Due to the rather recent controversial attribution of the sitter, this portrait failed to reach its minimum estimate in a Christies auction in April 2007, and was withdrawn from sale. No doubt its value will only increase with the passing of time.

In 1797 Ozias Humphrey’s sight finally failed, leaving him blind, and he died in 1810 in Hampstead, north London.

The bulk of his possessions came into the hands of his natural son, William Upcott, the book collector. From him the British Museum acquired a large number of papers relating to Humphry.

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A Closer Look at Catherine Knight

I am very much obliged to Mrs. Knight for such a proof of the interest she takes in me, and she may depend upon it that I will marry Mr. Papillon, whatever may be his reluctance or my own. I owe her much more than such a trifling sacrifice.
Jane Austen to Cassandra
December 9, 1808


Catherine Knatchbull Knight, the wife of Thomas Knight, is best known to Janeites as the adoptive mother of Jane Austen’s brother Edward; Edward’s inheritance of the Knight estates brought him, among other properties, the ownership of Chawton Cottage, which he was able to offer to his mother and sisters as a home, and in which Jane wrote and revised her novels for publication. Most biographies do not see her as a great influence on Jane Austen’s life and writing, though she clearly took an interest in the Austen ladies and also in Jane Austen’s published writing.

Mrs. Knight’s relationship to the Austen sisters makes an appearance in a letter written by Lady Knatchbull, née Fanny Knight, Edward’s eldest daughter and Jane Austen’s favorite niece, to her younger sister:

Yes my love it is very true that Aunt Jane from various circumstances was not so refined as she ought to have been from her talent, and if she had lived fifty years later she would have been in many respects more suitable to our more refined tastes. They were not rich & the people around with whom they chiefly mixed, were not at all high bred, or in short anything more than mediocre & they of course tho’ superior in mental powers & cultivation were on the same level as far as refinement goes–but I think in later life their intercourse with Mrs. Knight (who was very fond & kind to them) improved them both & Aunt Jane was too clever not to put aside all possible signs of ‘common-ness’ (if such an expression is allowable) & teach herself to be more refined at least in intercourse with people in general. Both the aunts (Cassandra and Jane) were brought up in the most complete ignorance of the World & its ways (I mean as to fashion etc.) & if it had not been for Papa’s marriage which brought them into Kent, & the kindness of Mrs. Knight, who used often to have one or other of the sisters staying with her, they would have been, tho’ not less clever and agreeable in themselves, very much below par as to good society and its ways. If you hate all this I beg yr’ pardon, but I felt it at my pen’s end & it chose to come along & speak the truth.

Leaving aside Janeites’ opinions of Lady Knatchbull’s state of mind when that letter was written, one can pull out the comments about Mrs. Knight—that she was fond of and kind to Jane and Cassandra Austen. The mentions of Mrs. Knight in Jane’s letters bear that out, and also indicate that the fondness was returned, and her kindness much appreciated.

Catherine Knatchbull married Thomas Knight II in 1779, around the time that her portrait was painted by George Romney, showing her as a beautiful and elegant woman. Two years later, her husband inherited his father’s estates, including property and houses at Godmersham, Chawton, and Steventon. Her father, the Rev. Wadham Knatchbull, was a younger son of Sir Edward Knatchbull, 4th Baronet. (Fanny Knight, Catherine’s adopted granddaughter, married Sir Edward Knatchbull, 9th Baronet, Catherine’s cousin and great- grandson of the 4th Bt.; their son, elevated to the peerage as Lord Brabourne, edited the first edition of Jane Austen’s letters, most of which were inherited by his mother and discovered after her death.) As part of their wedding tour, the Knights visited Steventon, where they first made the acquaintance of young Edward Austen. Edward was invited to visit the Knights during his holidays, and in 1783, when it became clear that the Knights would be childless, they formally adopted the sixteen-year-old Edward as their heir, as shown in the silhouette at left (click for a larger version). According to Deirdre Le Faye, Mr. Knight is leaning on his sister’s Jane’s chair, and Mrs. Knight is the lady on the other side of the table, turned to see Mr. Austen presenting Edward. Edward remained at Steventon until 1786; the Knights then sent Edward on the Grand Tour, and he went to live with the Knights in 1790.

Mr. Knight died in 1794; three years later, Mrs. Knight turned over control of the estate to Edward, leaving only an income of £2,000 for herself and a small house called White Friars in nearby Canterbury, where she would live. When this scheme was first proposed to Edward, he protested that she could not give up so much, and refused to allow her to reduce her circumstances “to enrich us.” Mrs. Knight’s response was all generosity.

If anything were wanted, my dearest Edward, to confirm my resolution concerning the plan I propose executing, your letter would have that effect; it is impossible for any person to express their gratitude and affection in terms more pleasing and gratifying than you have chosen, and from the bottom of my heart I believe you to be perfectly sincere when you assure me that your happiness is best secured by seeing me in the full enjoyment of every thing that can contribute to my ease and comfort, and that happiness, my dear Edward, will be yours by acceding to my wishes.

From the time that my partiality for you induced Mr. Knight to treat you as our adopted child I have felt for you the tenderness of a mother, and never have you appeared more deserving of affection than at this time; to reward your merit, therefore, and to place you in a situation where your many excellent qualities will be called forth and rendered useful to the neighbourhood, is the fondest wish of my heart. Many circumstances attached to large landed possessions, highly gratifying to a man, are entirely lost on me at present; but when I see you in the enjoyment of them, I shall, if possible, feel my gratitutde to my beloved husband redoubled, for having placed in my hands the power of bestowing happiness on one so very dear to me.

While such an extent of generosity could not be duplicated for every member of the Austen family, Mrs. Knight, as Fanny wrote, took a kind interest in the Austen ladies, especially after Mr. Austen’s death; but as early as 1791, Mrs. Knight seemed to be showing an interest in Jane’s intellect at least, if not also in her juvenile writing. In her parodic History of England, Jane defends Mary, Queen of Scots:

Oh! what must this bewitching Princess whose only freind was then the Duke of Norfolk, and whose only ones are now Mr. Whitaker, Mrs. Lefroy, Mrs. Knight, and myself. . . .

Mr. Whitaker was the author of a book that attempts to vindicate Mary, Queen of Scots, and Mrs. Lefroy was a neighbor who was also a sort of mentor to Jane. To have Mrs. Knight mentioned in this context means that she had taken sufficient notice of young Jane Austen to have discussed history with her; kind notice indeed for an older lady to take of even a precocious young cousin.

Jane Austen’s letters show the continuing attention she and Cassandra received from Mrs. Knight over the next few years. From the letter of January 7, 1807:

We are extremely glad to hear that Elizabeth is so much better, and hope you will be sensible of still further amendment in her when you return from Canterbury. Of your visit there I must now speak “incessantly”; it surprises, but pleases me more, and I consider it as a very just and honourable distinction of you, and not less to the credit of Mrs. Knight. I have no doubt of your spending your time with her most pleasantly in quiet and rational conversation, and am so far from thinking her expectations of you will be deceived, that my only fear is of your being so agreeable, so much to her taste, as to make her wish to keep you with her for ever. If that should be the case, we must remove to Canterbury, which I should not like so well as Southampton.

This kindness, it seemed, extended not only to notice and visits of her younger cousins, but also to financial assistance. It seems, indeed, that “Mrs. K.” was an early patron of Jane Austen. From the letter of June 20, 1808:

…we proceeded to the White Friars, where Mrs. K. was alone in her Drawing room, as gentle & kind & friendly as usual.—She enquired after every body, especially my Mother & yourself… This morning brought me a letter from Mrs. Knight, containing the usual Fee, & all the usual Kindness. She asks me to spend a day or two with her this week, to meet Mrs. C. Knatchbull, who with her Husband comes to the W. Friars to day—& I beleive I shall go.—I have consulted Edward—& think it will be arranged for Mrs. J. A.’s going with me one morning, my staying the night, & Edward’s driving me home the next Evening.—Her very agreable present will make my circumstances quite easy. I shall reserve half for my Pelisse. . . . Mrs. Knight finished her letter with, “Give my best love to Cassandra when you write to her.” I shall like spending a day at the White Friars very much. . . . I sent my answer by them to Mrs. Knight, my double acceptance of her note & her invitation, which I wrote without much effort; for I was rich—& the Rich are always respectable, whatever be their stile of writing.

From the letter of June 26, 1808:

And now I beleive I have made all the needful replys & communications; & may disport myself as I can on my Canterbury visit.—It was a very agreable visit. There was everything to make it so; Kindness, conversation, & variety, without care or cost. . .We found Mrs. Knight up and better; but early as it was—only 12 o’clock—we had scarcely taken off our bonnets before company came—Ly. Knatchbull and her mother; and after them succeeded Mrs. White, Mrs. Hughes and her two children, Mr. Moore, Harriot and Louisa, and John Bridges, with such short intervals between any as to make it a matter of wonder to me that Mrs. K. and I should ever have been ten minutes alone or have had any leisure for comfortable talk, yet we had time to say a little of everything. . . .Mrs. K. has promised to call in Castle Square; it will be about the end of July. She seems to have a prospect, however, of being in that county again in the spring for a longer period, and will spend a day with us if she is. You and I need not tell each other how glad we shall be to receive attention from, or pay it to anyone connected with, Mrs. Knight. I cannot help regretting that now, when I feel enough her equal to relish her society, I see so little of the latter.

So clearly Jane Austen felt that time spent with Mrs. Knight was more than just a duty to a kind and generous relative, but something beneficial in itself, and something to be enjoyed.

After the Austen ladies removed to Chawton Cottage, Mrs. Knight’s interest continued. In October 1809, she wrote to Fanny Knight,

I heard of the Chawton Party looking very comfortable at Breakfast, from a gentleman who was travelling by their door in a Post-chaise about ten days ago. Your account of the whole family gives me the sincerest Pleasure, and I beg you will assure them all how much I feel interested in their happiness.

Apparently Mrs. Knight felt enough interest in Jane’s happiness to suggest a bit of matchmaking with the Chawton rector. From the letter of December 9, 1808:

I am very much obliged to Mrs. Knight for such a proof of the interest she takes in me, and she may depend upon it that I will marry Mr. Papillon, whatever may be his reluctance or my own. I owe her much more than such a trifling sacrifice.

Mrs. Knight continued to show interest in Jane’s writing career, and unlike some of the younger members of the family was admitted to the secret of her authorship, as she asked Cassandra about the progress of the publication of Sense and Sensibility. From the letter of April 26, 1811:

No, indeed, I am never too busy to think of S&S. I can no more forget it, than a mother can forget her sucking child; & I am much obliged to you for your inquiries. I have had two sheets to correct, but the last only brings us to W.(illoughby)’s first appearance. Mrs. K. regrets in the most flattering manner that she must wait till May, but I have scarcely a hope of its being out in June. . . . I am very much gratified by Mrs. K.’s interest in it; & whatever may be the event of it as to my credit with her, sincerely wish her curiosity could be satisfied sooner than is now probable. I think she will like my Elinor, but cannot build on any thing else.

While the source material is scanty, one can build a portrait of this kind, elegant woman and her interest in the well-being and intellectual life of Jane Austen and her sister and mother.

Margaret C. Sullivan is the Editrix of AustenBlog and the author of The Jane Austen Handbook: A Sensible Yet Elegant Guide to Her World. (Quirk Books, 2007). She wishes that she, too, could have her portrait painted by George Romney.

Austen-Leigh, William and Austen-Leigh, Richard Arthur, Revised and Enlarged by Deirdre Le Faye. Jane Austen: A Family Record. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1989.

Fergus, Jan. Jane Austen: A Literary Life. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991.

Lane, Maggie. Jane Austen’s Family Through Five Generations. London: Robert Hale, 1984.

Le Faye, Deirdre. Jane Austen (The British Library Writers’ Lives). New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Le Faye, Deirdre, Ed. Jane Austen’s Letters (Third Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.


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Jane Austen’s Brothers

Jane Austen’s brothers

“A Family of [Eight] children will always be called a fine family, where there are head and arms and legs enough for the number. ”
-Jane Austen

Jane Austen had six brothers– each with different talents, each contributing to her work in some way.

James (1765-1819)

Often thought by the family to be the “literary one” (see his poem on Sense and Sensibility), one of Austen’s brothers James followed in his father’s footsteps attending Oxford university at the age of 14 in 1779. After his ordination in 1787, he and his brother Henry edited a university magazine called The Loiterer, which ran for sixty issues. (Some issues of The Loiterer are available on-line.) After his marriage, he became his father’s curate at Deane, and after his retirement, He took on the duties of the Steventon as well.

James was not Jane Austen’s favorite brother, though she did call him “good and clever”. He seems to have had a bit of melancholy about him, uncharacteristic of the other Austens. Perhaps it was turning from the excitement of Oxford to the retired life of a country Vicar. Perhaps it was seeing his literary pretensions lived out through his sister or the wealth acceded to by his younger brother. It is true that his life was not untouched by sorrow, as well. His first wife died when their daughter, Anna (1793-1872), was but two years old. Anna was the first niece and a favorite of Jane Austen’s. She also had her father’s creative streak and worked on a a novel, Which is the Heroine, with the help of her aunt, until Jane Austen’s death, at which time Anna burned the work.

James married again and his second wife, Mary Lloyd, was not a favorite of Jane Austen’s, even though she was the sister of her dear friend, Martha Lloyd. James and Mary had two children, James Edward (1798-1874) and Caroline (1805-1880) who also solicited their aunt’s approval on their literary efforts. Caroline later wrote down her memories of her Aunt Jane and James Edward wrote the Memoir.

George (1766-1838)

Not much is known about young George Austen. Though he lived a relatively long life, characteristic of the Leigh side of the family, he spent the whole of it living with a farming family a few miles from Steventon. Some scholars believe he was mentally retarded, others that he was merely deaf, speculation rising from Jane Austen’s comment that she was fluent in “finger speaking”. Regardless of the cause, George was destined to play little part in the Austen’s brothers and family daily lives.

Edward Knight (1767-1852)

Edward was the only Austen brother not to have a profession. Early in the 1780’s he was adopted by Mr. Austen’s Patron, the rich but childless Thomas and Catherine Knight. Instead of going off to University, He was sent on the “grand tour” of continental Europe in 1786-1788, and eventually inherited their estate of Godmersham, Kent, and took the last name of “Knight”.

As part of his inheritance, Edward also acquired Steventon and an estate in Chawton. It was a cottage attached to the latter that he made available to his widowed mother and sisters, and here that millions of fans tour each year when they visit “Jane Austen’s Home”.

Edward had a large family and lively, cultured wife, Elizabeth. The Austen Aunts, Cassandra and Jane were frequent visitors to Godmersham during the early years, and when Edward’s wife died during her eleventh confinement the aunts became an integral part of the Godmersham and then Chawton, life.

Edward’s oldest daughter, Fanny, was but 16 when her mother died. She was another favorite niece who looked to her aunt for emotional as well as literary guidance. Unfortunately, Jane Austen died before she was able to see her find her own Mr. Darcy. Fanny eventually married a baronet; her son edited the first edition of Jane Austen’s letters.

Henry Thomas (1771-1850)

Henry was Jane Austen’s favorite brother and the sibling most like her in looks and temperament. He was witty and enthusiastic in whatever he did; the eternal optimist, though success did not always find him. He entered Oxford in 1788 in time to co edit the Loiterer with his brother James. He and James also shared a passion for the same woman, their widowed cousin, Eliza de Feuillide. She eventually chose Henry, 10 years her junior, and they were married in 1797.

Thanks in part to Eliza’s influence, Henry forsook his family’s expectations that he join James in the ministry and instead chose the militia. He later tried banking and lived the life of a London Business man until the bank failed, due to economic factors, in 1815. His wife, Eliza had died two years previously allowing him to return to his intended profession, eventually becoming a Calvinist-leaning minister. He served at different times in the curacy of Steventon and Chawton before becoming the Perpetual Curate at Bentley.

Henry was the sibling most influential in allowing Jane Austen to publish her works. Not only was his home available for her to stay in during her trips to London to work with her publisher, these visits also gave her an insight into society life that she would not otherwise have had, furnishing settings, events and characters for her novels to come. It was Henry who saw to the publication of Persuasion and Northanger Abbey after her death, and a Henry who wrote the brief, but loving biographical notice which prefaced these two novels and provided the world with their first glimpse into the life of this author.

Henry went on to marry again, this time Eleanor Jackson, a woman the family considered “an excellent wife”. He spent the rest of his days living the retired life of a country curate.

Francis William (1774–1865)

Francis Austen had, perhaps, the most glorious career of the Austen brothers, serving in the Navy from the age of 12 and eventually achieving Knighthood as Sir Francis Austen and rising to the position of Admiral of the Fleet. Considered by Admiral Nelson to be “an excellent young man”, he narrowly missed involvement in the battle of Trafalgar due to his temporary detachment as captain of a captured French Ship, the Canopus.

It is doubtless this connection which gave Jane Austen such an admiration for the men of the Royal Navy. A look at his career proclaims him not only the inspiration for the young Lieutenant William Price in Mansfield Park, but even more so for the unforgettable Captain Wentworth of Persuasion. Even the high points of their promotions stem from the same Battle, The Action off Santo Domingo.

According to some, Francis’ earlier promotions were due to the patronage of Warren Hastings, a friend of the family and supposed father of his cousin, Eliza de Feuillide. His ports of call ranged to the far corner of the British Empire at the time, spending time in the Far East from age 14 to 18 and later the Indies.

Francis and his wife, Mary had a cordial relationship with the Austen ladies, even including them for some time in their household in Southampton from 1805-1808, after the death of Rev. Austen. This arrangement, happy for all, as Frank was often at sea, also included their close friend, Martha Lloyd, sister to James Austen’s wife Mary. Unfortunately for Francis, His happy home was broken up upon the death of his wife in 1823 after the birth of their 11th child. In 1828 he remarried, completing the family circle by wedding Martha Lloyd (1765-1843). She gained fame in her own right, by collecting the recipes which later were compiled into The Jane Austen Household Book and more lately, The Jane Austen Cookbook.

Francis’ daughter, Catherine married John Hubback and went on to write the first completion of Jane Austen’s unfinished novel, The Watsons. Her son, John Henry Hubback co-authored Jane Austen’s Sailor Brothers with his Daughter, Edith Hubback, in 1906.

Charles John (1779-1852)

Charles was Jane’s darling little brother, clearly a favorite with both sisters as a boy. Though his career was nowhere near as distinguished as that of his brother, he also joined the Naval Academy as Midshipman at the age of 12 and rose to become a Rear-Admiral. Much to the regret of his family, he was stationed in the West Indies where he remained for seven years straight, returning at the end of that time with a wife and child.

It was Charles’ gift of Topaz Crosses to his sisters which inspired a similar scene in Mansfield Park. Charles Austen’s ship, Endymion captured many prizes during the war with France, leaving him a comfortable settlement. He died, at age 75, still on Active Duty, during a naval river-war in Burma.

Brian Southam, president of the Jane Austen Society, has written a wonderful book about these two daring brothers, entitled Jane Austen’s Sailor Brothers.


Laura Boyle creates custom made hats, bonnets, reticules and other Regency Accessories for Austentation a Regency Fashion History site and Boutique.

Portrait of the Austen Family by Jane Odiwe. Visite her website, Austen Effusions for more original Austen Art and Gift Items.

Portrait of Francis Austen reproduced by kind permission of the owner. No other reproudctions permissable.