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James Gillray: Regency Caricaturist

507px-JamesgillrayportraitJames Gillray (13 August 1756 or 1757 – 1 June 1815), was a British caricaturist and printmaker famous for his etched political and social satires, mainly published between 1792 and 1810.

He was born in Chelsea. His father, a native of Lanark, had served as a soldier, losing an arm at the Battle of Fontenoy, and was admitted, first as an inmate, and afterwards as an outdoor pensioner, at Chelsea Hospital. Gillray commenced life by learning letter-engraving, at which he soon became adept. This employment, however, proved irksome to James, so he wandered about for a time with a company of strolling players. After a very checkered experience he returned to London and was admitted as a student in the Royal Academy, supporting himself by engraving, and probably issuing a considerable number of caricatures under fictitious names. His caricatures are almost all in etching, some also with aquatint, and a few using stipple technique.

None can correctly be described as engravings, although this term is often loosely used to describe them. Hogarth’s works were the delight and study of his early years. Paddy on Horseback, which appeared in 1779, is the first caricature which is certainly his. Two caricatures on Admiral Rodney’s naval victory at the Battle of the Saintes, issued in 1782, were among the first of the memorable series of his political sketches.

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The Jubilee of George III

As the world celebrates Queen Elizabeth’s Diamond Jubilee,  it’s amazing to see that the preparations for King George III’s Golden Jubilee, in October, 1809, were not only similar (feasts, speeches, fireworks, commemorative memorabilia) but almost universally enthusiastic among the people of England, and while there was no nationally regulated celebration, there was jubilation throughout the country, from city to hamlet, with each city and town recognizing the King’s reign in their own “delightful way.”

No slighting mention is given of “Farmer George” who “lost” the American colonies a few decades before, or even his ever more perilous health. Rather, blessings and praise were heaped upon him and his family. In turn, the king granted royal pardons to prisoners (both those who owed debts to the crown and military deserters) and gave general promotions throughout the military. According to one source*, the inhabitants of one Oxfordshire village made sure that no one forgot this national Jubilee by deciding to name every child born during 1809, Jubilee George or Jubilee Charlotte.

From: The New annual register, or General repository of history, politics, and literature, by John Stockdale, October 1809
The happy event of a British monarch’s entrance into the 50th year of his reign, an event which has occurred but twice before in the long and splendid history of this country, was celebrated by all ranks of people throughout every part of the united kingdom, in a manner worthy of an amiable, patriotic, and venerable king, and a loyal and enlightened nation. The day was one of the finest imaginable for the season, and favoured the public expressions of satisfaction in the highest degree. The celebration was announced in this great metropolis by the pealing of bells, the hoisting of flags, and the assembling of the various bodies of regular troops, and the different corps of volunteers, throughout the town. The forenoon was dedicated to public worship and the acknowledgement of the Divine Providence (exemplified in the protection of his majesty’s person, and of the many national blessings almost exclusively enjoyed by the inhabitants of the united kingdom) in every parish-church and chapel: and we add, that among the various classes of dissenters of all persuasions, we have heard of no exception to the general loyalty and piety of the day. Indeed, we sincerely believe, that the blessings of toleration are too deeply fell, and the advantages of the British constitution too generally acknowledged, to give room for any material difference of opinion in any respectable portion of society.

All the shops were closed. The lord mayor and the whole civic body went in procession to St. Paul’s; and it was truly gratifying, amidst the multitudes in the streets, of both sexes of every rank and description, to see the children of our innumerable charitable institutions walking to their respective places of divine worship. Piety and Charity must ever go hand in hand; and for this reason we are well pleased with the celebration of an event, which is the cause of general and national hospitality and benevolence. This is, in fact, the true nature, the best blessing, and the nearest resemblance to the origin and ancient practice of a Jubilee. The annals of no nation, we fondly believe, when the accounts reach us from different parts of the empire, will be found to have exhibited greater mark– of the best virtues that enrich the human heart. The debtor has been set free; the hungry have been fed; and the naked, in many instances, have been clothed! In all such cases, vanity and fashion may have led some to acts of generosity; but we should not be over scrupulous in our inquiries into the motives of conferring general benefit, and producing happiness to thousands, though it be but for a day. We are satisfied, that to the general character of our countrymen and countrywomen, no such suspicion even attaches; and that the blessing of “him that has none to help him,” will fall upon no small number. Such an union of piety and charity, while it is a comfort to ourselves individually, bring out, and,makes a happy exposition to Europe and the world, of the national character of Britons ; and thus combining moral and political good, is, we believe, in a word,  “that righteousness which exalteth a nation.”

At one, the Tower guns fired, and the guards assembled on the parade in St. James’s park, and fired a feu de joi  in honour of the event. After church hours, the streets were crowded with the population of the metropolis, in decent or in lively attire; every house pouring forth its inhabitants: the number of well-dressed persons, and the display of the genuine beauty of a great majority of the sex, who do not constantly shine at midnight dances and the public show, but whom this celebration brought into public view, exceeded any former example. Most of them wore ribbons of garter blue, and many had medals with the profile of the king.

The magnificent preparations for the evening were the general objects of notice, which the serenity of such a day as October does not often see gave them full opportunity of ob. serving, while the volunteer corps, returning from their respective parade, enlivened the scene with a  martial as well as a patriotic and a festive feature. As the evening approached, the corporation of London and various other bodies were hastening to the Mansion-house, and to their different halls, taverns, and other places of meeting, to celebrate in a more mirthful way the 50th year of the reign of a British ling. At  the Mansion-house the corporation sat down to a dinner provided by the chief magistrate of the city; the merchants and bankers met at Merchant-Taylors’ Hall to the number of 400, Mr. Beeston Long in the chair, (where they were joined by the earls of Westmorland, Chatham, Bathurst, Camden, Liverpool, St. Vincent, lords Harrowby, Mulgeave, Berkshire, the Attorney- and Solicitor-general, sir T. B. Thompson, Mr. Rose, &c.) and many of the chief companies of London, at their halls; and numerous other parties, at various places of public or private entertainment.—Day-light was scarcely gone, when the full blaze burst forth upon the eye in all the skill of art, and in all the radiant splendour and varied magnificence 6f the general illumination of the British capital.—Hands could hardly be procured to light up the innumerable lamps; and therefore the illuminating of most of the public edifices commenced as early as two in the afternoon. All the other customary demonstrations of popular satisfaction were abundantly exhibited, with, perhaps, some little of the awkward, though, we trust, honest coarseness, with which the great body of the people express their homely but sincere participation of the festivities in which all were called upon to share and unite.

Our limits preclude us from entering into minute particulars. The following, among other public buildings, however, excited universal admiration: the Bank, Mansion-house, East India House, Lloyd’s Coffee House, Royal Exchange, Admiralty, ‘Trinity House, Po»t Office, Horse Guards, War Office, Somerset House, Ordnance Office, Opera House, the theatres, fire-offices, glass-warehouses, &c.

The jubilee was celebrated with every demonstration of joy at Windsor. Between eight and nine their majesties, princess Elizabeth, and the dukes of York and Sussex, attended’ divine service at the private chapel in the Castle. At half past ten her majesty and princess Elizabeth passed under the triumphal arch, towards Frogmore,to inspect the preparations. At one, the queen, princess Elizabeth, the dukes of York, Kent, Cumberland, and Sussex, attended by lady llchester, lord St. Helen, the mayor and corporation of Windsor, with white wands, and others, walked to the Bachelor’s Acre, for the purpose of seeing the ox roasting whole. The bachelors lined the entrance to their Acre, and the corporation conducted the royal party to a booth fitted up for the occasion. From the booth they proceeded towards the ox, upon a temporary platform placed for the occasion; they proceeded to view the construction of the grates and walls for roasting the ox, which were so well contrived as to roast two whole sheep at the same time: they returned to the booth. The butchers employed in managing the cooking of the whole animals, dressed upon this occasion in blue frocks and silk stockings, cut the first prime pieces from the ox and sheep, and put them upon silver plates, and the bachelors and butchers waited upon the royal party with them. They all tasted, and appeared highly pleased with the novelty.

— The prince of Wales and princess Charlotte of Wales arrived about half past 12.

—At one, fifty pieces of cannon were discharged from the , grove in Windsor park.

W. H. Pyne: Frogmore Hand-Colored Aquatint Engraving, 1819

—At night the queen gave a most superb fête at Frogmore,which in point of taste, splendour, and brilliancy has on no occasion been excelled. At half past nine the gates were thrown or en for the nobility, gentry, and others having tickets of admission. On the entrance into the gardens, the spectator was struck with astonishment and delight at the charming and fanciful scene of variegated lamps of different figures and colours. The avenues and walks were hung with brilliant coloured lamps in the shape of watchmen’s lanterns. The lawns adjoining to the house afforded a rich display of the choicest shrubs and plants, taken from the green-house. At ten the queen arrived; and after her majesty had joined the company, the fire-works began; at the conclusion of which there appeared of a sudden, and as it were by magic, on the beautiful piece of water opposite the garden front of the house, two triumphal cars, drawn by two sea-horses each, one occupied by Neptune, and preceded by the other with a band of music. The cars had a very superb appearance. On coming to the temporary bridge erected over the canal opposite the garden front, transparencies were displayed in an equally sudden and unexpected manner on the battlements, with the words ” Rule, Britannia! Britannia, rule the waves!” inscribed on them. At the same moment the band struck up the tune. Opposite the bridge, an elegant Grecian temple was erected on a mount, surrounded by eight beautiful marble pillars. The interior of the temple was lined with purple; and in the centre was a large transparency of the Eye of Providence, fixed, as it were, upon, a beautiful portrait of his majesty, surmounted by stars of lamps. From the temple a double staircase descended to the water’s edge. On the windings of the staircase were erected nine altars with burning incense.

—On the lawn twelve beautiful marquees were erected, where the company partook of tea and coffee during the fire-works. Covers were laid in the principal dining-rooms  and at 12 the company sat down to an elegant supper, consisting of all the delicacies of the season. The frames were beautifully done in emblematic figures, part of which represented Britannia kneeling by the lion, the eye of Providence above, and underneath was written by her royal highness the princess Elizabeth, “Britannia, grateful to Providence, celebrates the 50th year of a reign sacred to piety and virtue.”

—Her majesty and the branches of the family present retired at half past one, when the company began to depart. Amongst the company present were, the earls of Uxbridge, Harcourt, Cardigan; lords St. Helen’s and Walsingham, countesses of Cardigan and Harcourt, ladies Cranley, Bective, &c.

On this happy occasion, a proclamation was issued for pardoning all deserters from the fleet, whether they return to their duty or not; and another, pardoning all deserters from the land forces, provided they surrender in two months from the 25th.

— The lords of the admiralty ordered an extra allowance of 41bs. of beef, 3lbs, of flour, and a pound of raisins to every eight men in his majesty’s ships in port, with one pint of wine, or half a pint of rum each man

—Eleven crown debtors  were this day discharged from prison, in addition to above 100 liberated by the Society for the Relief of Persons imprisoned for Small Debts. The donations to this laudable society for the above charitable purpose have been most liberal. The city of London set the example by subscribing 1000/.

The following is a copy of the prayer of thanksgiving to Almighty God (appointed to be used on the 25th instant), for the protection afforded the king’s majesty during a long and arduous reign:—

“O God, in whose hands are the issues of life and death, and to whom alone it belongeth to distribute mercies, as well in lengthening as in shortening the days of men; we yield thee praise and thanks giving for the protection thou hast vouchsafed to our gracious sovereign during a long and arduous reign. Continue, we pray thee, thy watchfulness over him: shield him from the open attacks of his enemies, and from hidden dangers —from the arrow that flieth by day, and from the pestilence that walketh in darkness; enlighten his councils for the public good: strengthen all his measures; and when it shall seem fit to thine unerring wisdom, perfect the ends of both, the restoration of peace and security to his people, of concord and independence to contending and bleeding nations. These blessings and mercies we implore for our sovereign, ourselves, our allies, and our enemies, through the merits and mediation of Jesus Christ, our Lord and Saviour.—Amen.”


Below are excerpts from An account of the celebration of the jubilee, on the 25th October, 1809; being the forty-ninth anniversary of the reign of George the third, collected and published  by a lady, the wife of a naval officer, printed in 1810.

To those patriotic spirits who manifested their gratitude and joy when their beloved Sovereign entered on the Jubilee Year of his Reign, not in riot and intemperance, but in acts of beneficence and devotion, it is presumed that the following compilation will not be an unacceptable publication. To rescue from the fugacious and perishing pages of a newspaper, such speaking details of national loyalty; to incorporate them with similar accounts collected from private authorities; and to compress the whole within a convenient compass, at the same time that it pays a becoming tribute of justice to individuals, may render no inconsiderable service to history: for thus the liberality of the present day will be transmitted to the latest posterity, and ages yet unborn may learn, that whatever be the failings of our times, want of attachment to virtue and goodness in the person of a revered Sovereign, cannot be ranked amongst the number.

That the inhabitants of this country have duly appreciated the merits of their Sovereign, and paid a just tribute to his manifold virtues, these pages will amply testify. The general sentiment so unequivocally exhibited in the Jubilee Year of his Reign, more eloquently declares the affection of the people at large, than volumes of studied panegyric.

When the 49th Anniversary of his Majesty’s Accession to the Throne was celebrated throughout the kingdom, the petty distinctions of party were forgotten in one general acknowledgment of the blessings enjoyed under a reign the most benignant that, perhaps, any people ever yet experienced. The Meeting House of the Dissenter, the Synagogue of the Jew, the Chapels alike of the Methodist and Roman Catholic, were opened to express one unanimous sentiment; and the whole of the British Dominions presented, on the 25th of October, 1809, the sublime and animating spectacle of an entire nation occupied in praise and thanksgiving to that gracious Being, by “whom Kings reign,” for having spared to so late a period a life so precious as that of George the Third.

The veneration and loyalty of the people of London for his Majesty, as well as their gratitude for the opportunity given them by Divine Providence, of celebrating the commencement of the Fiftieth year of our gracious Sovereign’s auspicious reign, was testified by every possible demonstration of joy. The morning was ushered in by a general peal of bells from all the church steeples in the metropolis, and the display of the royal standards, in honour of the day. At ten o’clock the streets were filled in all parts of the town with well-dressed persons. The volunteers in the several districts were seen marching to their respective places of worship, as were the children of the different parishes, to return their grateful thanks to Almighty God for having graciously prolonged to this country the reign of a Monarch, who has on all occasions proved himself the benevolent father of his people, and the protector of their rights, freedom, and property. The crowd of citizens from Temple-bar to Leadenhall-street, during the whole morning, was almost impervious, and the windows, from the first floor to the attics, were filled with beautiful women.

The preparations which were made on every side announced early in the morning a general and splendid illumination. In this demonstration of joy, the unanimous and ardent feeling of the people was particularly conspicuous. It was a demonstration not only not commanded, nor invited, but even in many instances forbidden and deprecated. But the effusions of a happy and loyal people could not be restrained. Every one acted for himself, and a general illumination was the consequence. The public offices, and other public buildings; the theatres; the clubhouses in St. James’s-street; the coffee-houses in all parts; the residences of the principal nobility and gentry, were hung with a profusion of coloured lamps. The day opened with a splendor and mildness that seemed to recall the finest period of the summer. It was, indeed, peculiarly calculated for the purposes to which it was devoted. As such, it was hailed hy the people of all ranks and classes. Sounds of joy and happiness marked the way of all; and it was impossible to listen or to look, without feeling that every Briton celebrated the Jubilee of George the Third as a festival of the heart. Private families and individuals, animated by the same zeal, thronged to every place of public worship, where extraordinary service was performed, and appropriate discourses pronounced upon texts selected for the occasion. The poor were every where made to partake of the comforts of the rich; and the generous hospitality for which Britain is famous, characterised a liberality which would be injured by the cold name of charity, or by any other name that conveys ideas of inequality, of dependence, and superiority, that belong not to an occasion upon which all feel alike.

At one o’clock a grand salute of fifty guns was fired from the Park and Tower. The regiments of Guards in town attended Divine Service at the chapel, Whitehall, formerly the Banqueting-house of Whitehall Palace, which had been repaired for their use, under the direction of his Royal Highness the Duke of York, and was opened on this occasion. The Life Guards were also out; as were also the whole of the Volunteer Corps of the Metropolis, many of which, after hearing Divine Service, had a Grand Field Day in Hyde Park, where each fired a Jeude joie in a  most capital style, in honour of the occasion.

At half past ten o’clock the Lord Mayor proceeded from the Mansion-house to Guildhall, in the City State-coach, drawn by his set of six beautiful grey horses, splendidly adorned with ribbons, and attended by the usual Officers, preceded by the trumpets sounding, and the Band of the West London Militia playing God save the King. At Guildhall his Lordship was joined by the Members of the Corporation, and at half past eleven o’clock the procession moved from thence in the following order:—

Four Street Men. Constables. City’s Banners. The River Fencibles, commanded by Commodore Lucas, in new uniforms. Band of Music, West London Militia, commanded by Col. Newnham. Eight City Trumpeters. City’s Banners. Four Marshals’ Men. Six Footmen in State Liveries. Upper City Marshal on Horseback. Lord Mayor’s State Coach. The Aldermen past the Chair. The Recorder. The Aldermen below the Chair. The Sheriffs, in their elegant State Carriages. Chamberlain, Comptroller, and City Law Officers. Twelve Constables. Two Marshals’ Men. , Under City Marshal on horseback.The Members of the Common Council to the number of 160, in carriages, in their violet gowns, closed the procession.

In the large space between the iron gates and great west door of the Cathedral, the West London Militia received his Lordship and the rest of the procession, with presented arms. On entering the great west door of the Cathedral, his Lordship was received by the Dean and Chapter. The centre aisle to the choir was lined on each side by the River Fencibles. An appropriate Sermon was preached by his Lordship’s Chaplain, from the 8th chapter of the 2d of Kings, verse 66′: The Coronation Anthem was performed previous to the Sermon by the full Choir with great effect. The procession returned about three o’clock in the same order. At five o’clock the Corporation were introduced up the Grand Staircase, in front of the Mansion-house; the trumpets sounding during their entrance into the vestibule. The building had been previously decorated with a splendid ‘illumination, consisting of elegant devices of the oak, thistle, and shamrock, coloured lamps, in the centre a radiant display of G. R. and the crown, with “Long may he reign.” The pillars were tastefully ornamented with wreaths of lamps; the whole was much admired for its general grandeur and effect. On entering the grand saloon, which was lined by the band of the West London Militia, playing God save the King, Rule Britannia, &;c. the company were individually received by the Lord Mayor, in his robes of state, with that affability, politeness, and attention, that distinguish this worthy Chief Magistrate. The saloon was brilliantly lighted with several large Grecian lamps, beautifully painted, and displaying a scene at once novel and elegant.

At half past five o’clock the doors of the magnificent Egyptian Hall were thrown open, illuminated by the blaze of innumerable lamps, tastefully arranged round the pillars, and the elegant lustres and chandeliers suspended from the roof. The tables were laid out with the greatest taste, and covered with an elegant dinner; the whole of which was served upon plate,with a plentiful supply of Madeira, &c. The band continuing during the whole time to play several delightful military and other airs. After the cloth was removed, Non Nobis Domine, was charmingly sung. The Lord Mayor then gave—”The King—God bless him, and long may he reign!” which was drank with three times three; and with exulting enthusiasm, amidst thunders of applause, that continued unabated for a considerable length of time.— After this effusion of loyal feeling had subsided, the national anthem of God save the King was performed by the professional gentlemen present, with appropriate additional verses for the occasion, the whole company standing, and joining in the chorus with the most heartfelt zeal, accompanied by the animating sounds of the military bands.

A general order was issued by the Lords of the Admiralty, that all our brave tars, in the ports of Great Britain, should be regaled with roast beef, plum pudding, and a pint of wine, or half a pint of rum, in addition to their usual allowance.

—The Governor and Directors of the Bank of England allowed their clerks, 927 in number, one guinea each, for a dinner, to celebrate the Jubilee day—The Directors of the Royal Exchange Insurance Fire Office gave each of their clerks ten guineas, their messengers five guineas each, and their firemen one guinea each, to celebrate the day.

—The Marshal of the King’s Bench, with his usual liberality, ordered a fine ox, with a butt of porter, bread, &c. to be distributed in the prison, with the very praise-worthy intention of enabling those prisoners whose circumstances would not allow them to participate in the general festivity of the Jubilee, to commemorate that auspicious day with satisfaction. The Corporation of the City of London presented the Society for the relief and discharge of Debtors with the sum of £1000. And the Society of Friends, commonly called Quakers, presented the same fund with the sum of  £500. By the liberality of Sir James Shaw, Bart. the president, and under the humane superintendence of R. Baldwin, Esq. the treasurer, the patients in Bartholomew’s Hospital (near 500 in number) were regaled, (as far as was consistent with their respective maladies) with excellent roast beef and plum-pudding, a pint of porter to each female, and a quart to each male patient capable of enjoying it, every tiling being conducted with great comfort and regularity. The Members of the Royal Academy dined together in their Council Chamber, at Somerset-house, to celebrate the Jubilee.

The children in Christ’s Hospital, after hearing Divine Service, and a sermon, by the Rev. James Crowther, were regaled, to the number of 700, in their great hall, with plenty of excellent roast beef and plum puddings (of which there were no less than 80). After dinner the youths were brought up in divisions of about 30, and received a glass of wine each, the elder boy of each class, as they advanced to the table where it was distributed, ascended a bench, and gave  as a toast, “To the King; long may he reign!” which was succeeded by a universal shout from the boys at large, each being served with a glass of wine in the most perfect order. The song of “God save the King,” was impressively and delightful  sung by a select party of the boys, the whole joining in the chorus, in a manner which at once charmed and affected the feelings of the auditory. The greatest credit is due to the Treasurer and Governors, who superintended and regulated this festivity, and who appeared fully rewarded for the pains they took, by the gladdened countenances and innocent joy felt by their numerous and interesting family.

Day-light was scarcely gone, when the full blaze burst forth upon the eye, in all the skill of art, and in all the radiant splendour and varied magnificence of the general illumination of the.British capital. Hands could hardly be procured to light up the innumerable lamps. All the customary demonstrations of popular satisfaction were abundantly exhibited. Those who recollect similar displays after the recovery of the Monarch’s health, and the several naval victories, require no description. Those who have not witnessed such a sight may find some gratification in the perusal of the details which are given.

The pillars of the portico in front of the Mansion House were encircled with rows of lamps, and the interstices decorated with golden vases and bouquets of oak, thistle, shamrock, &c. intermixed with flowers. In the centre was a large tablet, with,an illuminated inscription, “Long may he reign,” over which was the crown, &c.

The illuminations for King George's jubilee no doubt inspired these decorations for his granddaughter's golden jubilee. This etching was originally published in the Illustrated London News, 2 July 1887.

—The, illumination of Lloyd’s, on the north front of the Exchange, was appropriate and magnificent. In the centre, opposite Bartholomew-lane, was the representation of, the stern of a ship in full sail, 40 feet high from the keel to the maintop, with a long pendant flying. On the stern was inscribed Jubilee, 50, Lloyd’s. On the right was a large compartment, illuminated, with the motto “Ships, Colonies, and Commerce;” and on the left, one with the inscription, “Long Jive the King.” At each end of the building G. R. and the crown above. In other spaces were placed anchors, cables, stars, &c. The novelty of the design of the ship, and the brilliant; effect of the whole of this exhibition, created universal admiration.— The south front of, the Royal Exchange, facing Cornhill, was also decorated in a most splendid manner; the pillars and outlines of the building were finished with variegated lamps, and under the “archway in the centre hung a large illuminated anchor and trident, surmounted by a British Ensign. On the steeple was hoisted the Royal Standard.

—The Bank of England was elegant and superb. The entablatures, ballustrades and arches, were all marked with lines of lamps, and the columns encircled with serpentine wreaths. In the centre was a very large brilliant star and crown, with the motto, “God save the King.” All the pediments and the recesses behind the  pillars, in Threadneedle-street, Bartholomew-lane, and Princes-street were ornamented with stars and other devices. The new circular portico, at the corner of Prince’s street and Threadneedle-street, was very tastefully decorated. The building opposite exhibited, on a grand tablet, “God preserve the King.” The wall of Grocer’s Hall Garden, was adorned with the royal emblems.” The Sun and the Imperial Fire Offices, and all the neighbouring buildings, lent their aid to this most dazzling and interesting scene.

—The illuminations at the Post Office displayed Very great taste; and fancy. The whole of the covered passage leading: to the office Was decorated-with arched festoons, richly hung with variegated  lamps. The front was also Ornamented in a brilliant and appropriate manner.

—-The illuminations of ‘Mercers’ Hall, in Cheapside’, were well designed, and beautifully adorned by a splendid display Of lamps. A transparency containing a full-length portrait of his Majesty in his; state robes, under which was, “Long live the King”.

—The Admiralty was particularly splendid; the grand colonnade at the entrance of the hall being ornamented with spiral rows of different colours, from the ground to the top, amounting, it is said, to 3000 for each pillar, and the minor colonnade in front being also decorated in a splendid manner.

-—The illuminations at the British Museum were not inferior to that of any other in point of simplicity and elegance. The front of the gateway forming a triumphal arch, had a row of lamps on every architectural line. In the pediment were the letters G. R. and on the angle at the top of the pediment was a brilliant crown, within the arch, on a transparency, were the words Vota publica quinquaquagies suscepta.

Covent Garden Theatre was lighted up by rows of lamps round the window frames, &c-

—The Horse Guards, towards Whitehall, had a motto in the centre, God save the King,” with G. R. crown, &c. &c. On each wing, the crown, &c. &c. were repeated with superb festoons. The Treasury and Office for the Home Department were tastefully decorated.

City of London Tavern. A transparency, 12 feet by 9, painted by Howard, R. A. above appears a figure of Time, unrolling a scroll, on which is written “Jubilee;” immediately under, Britannia is placing a wreath of honour on a colossal bust of his Majesty; on the right. the City of London, accompanied by a figure of Commerce, is represented returning thanks to Providence for the many blessings of his reign; on the left, Science and the Arts are looking up to him as their Patron and Protector, and one of the group is tracing on the pedestal, “Inscribed by a grateful People to their King and Father, on entering the 50th year of his reign, October 25, 1809.”

Vauxhall Gardens with coloured lanterns, at night.

— The whole front of Vauxhall Gardens was so mechanically arranged as to represent a brilliant temple of loyalty, upwards of 70 feet in height, closely studded with variegated lamps, each compartment displaying different splendid and appropriate devices, in number exactly fifty, and terminating with an imperial crown, and other regal insignia. This had a very grand and striking effect, as the crown alone contained upwards of 1000 lamps.—The most general decorations were the Crown and G. R. and the mottos were mostly the same as those given. It is impossible to enter into further particulars of these numerous exhibitions of loyalty and splendour.


Frogmore Estate

The splendid fete given by her Majesty at Frogmore surpassed the expectation of every one. In the midst of an immense sheet of water, on an island, appeared a magnificent temple, dedicated to Britannia, within which an appropriate device met the eye. A beautiful star ascended from the summit of it, in which Mr. Turnerelli’s bust of his Majesty was exhibited. In the front of the temple, and close to the margin of the water, appeared a transparency, with these words:” Britannia celebrates the fiftieth year of a reign sacred to virtue and piety.”

—On the left of the temple a temporary bridge was erected over the lake, brilliantly illuminated, and inscribed “Rule Britannia, Britannia rules the waves,” which had a beautiful and magnificent effect. Behind this the fire-works were exhibited, and a more striking spectacle was never witnessed, as may be conceived from the following enumeration of them, and the order in which they were fired :—First Division. A salute battery of fifty maroons.—Two pyramids, Bengal fire—Twenty-four half-pound rockets, two at a time.—Two double triangle wheels, illuminated with diamond pieces.— Two planks saucissons.—Two air balloons.—Two large mines.—Two regulated pieces of three mutations.—Two planks pots de brins. Second Division.—Twenty-four half pound rockets.—Two air balloons.—Two regulated pieces, of three mutations.—Two large mines.—Two figure pieces, with spiral and scroll wheels.—Two planks pots de brins. Third Division.—Twenty-four half-pound rockets-—One grand figure piece, of three mutations.—Two air balloons.—Two balloon wheels, with Roman candles, rockets, &c.—Two flights of rockets.—Two grand regulated pieces, with globe wheels.—Two planks pots de brins. Fourth Division.—Twenty-eight one-pound rockets.—Two figure pieces, with spiral wheels and bayonet fire.—Two flights of rockets.—Two pyramids, Bengal fire.—A grand illuminated temple, with decorations, fixed sun, diamond pieces, and pots d’aigrets, &c.—One plank pots de brins.—Two planks saucissons. Three flights of rockets.—One large air balloon.—One battery of maroons.

The rockets, balloons, &c. ascending when fired, were again reflected by the lake in a thousand directions, and heightened inconceivably the splendour of the scene. Two cars or chariots, drawn by sea horses, in one of which was a figure representing Britannia, in the other a representative of Neptune, appeared majestically moving on the bosom of the lake, followed by four boats filled with persons dressed to represent tritons, &c. These last were to have been composed of choristers, who were to have sung “God save the King” on the water, but unfortunately the crowd assembled was so immense, that those who were to have sung could not gain entrance. The high treat this could not but have afforded was in consequence lost to the company.

The fireworks must have been similar in scale to those shown here: Handel's Fireworks Music, performed at his GRACE the Duke of RICHMOND'S at WHITEHALL and on the River Thames on Monday 15 May 1749. Performed by the direction of Charles Fredrick Esq. A hand-coloured etching.

—The interior of the temple was lined with purple, and in the centre was a large transparency of the Eye of Providence, fixed, as it were, upon a portrait of his Majesty, surmounted by stars of lamps. From the temple a double staircase descended to the water’s edge. On the windings of the staircase were erected nine altars with burning incense.

—On the lawn 12 marquees were erected, where the company partook of tea and coffee during the fire-works. Covers were laid in the principal dining rooms, and at 12 o’clock the company sat down to an elegant supper, consisting of all the delicacies of the season. The frames were beautifully done in emblematic figures, part of which represented Britannia kneeling by the lion, the Eye of Providence above, and underneath was written by her Royal Highness the Princess Elizabeth, “Britannia, grateful to Providence, celebrates the 50th year of a reign sacred to piety and virtue.”

The Queen was attended by the Dukes of York, Clarence, and Sussex, and the Princesses Augusta, Elizabeth, and Sophia. The Princesses and nobility wore blue ribbons, inscribed “The 50th year; may God bless him who blesseth us.”

In Frogmore, the company was mixed in a manner suitable to an occasion, on which all classes have shown such affectionate respect to the King, and on which, therefore, the Queen resolved to dispense, in a great measure, with distinctions for the day. All ranks, she said, were united in thankfulness, and therefore all should share in what entertainment she could give them. Tickets were accordingly sent to every family in Windsor, who had subscribed any thing to be distributed amongst the poor on that day. There was a great number of tradesmen’s wives and daughters present, mixed with the first nobility, and the accommodation for their reception was excellent; the whole way from the entrance of the grounds to the house and the temporary buildings erected about it, being covered with an awning and matted. The refreshments were tea and all kinds of sweetmeats and wines before the fireworks; an elegant supper afterwards. The Queen withdrew between twelve and one; but the Royal Dukes remained till three, and it was four before the whole company retired. Several bands of music attended.

Another account, Jubilee jottings: The jubilee of George the Third. 25th October, 1809, was printed in 1887  by Thomas Preston. With a clarity of recollection that comes with time, he recounts the same events, if not with the same breathless enthusiasm of our first hand observers, with an attention to detail and narrative style that is easy to read and imagine. From him, we get further descriptions of the illuminations– not only how they appeared, but how they were prepared for and presented.

The Georgian Jubilee
When it became probable that George III. would live to complete his Jubilee as King, the exact date and mode of celebration began to occupy public attention. And, oddly enough, the first general indication that the subject was really being thought about was a sudden rise in the tallow market. This was in March, 1809, when the tallow merchants and tallow chandlers began to accumulate large stores in anticipation of the expected great demand for candles in October. The price went up three-halfpence per pound, and this brought the subject home to every household; for at that time gas was a novelty and the tallow candle was the principal artificial indoor light. Sixteen shillings for a dozen pounds was the wholesale price, but this high figure only lasted about a month. It was proposed that as candles were so dear there should be no general illumination, and the suggestion being generally acquiesced in, the price of candles only went up a halfpenny per pound about a month before the Jubilee Day. But before this rise the directors of the Bank of England had laid in 19,200 lbs. of candles, as their stock for September and October!

The Jubilee rejoicings, however, had begun on the 4th June, the King’s birthday, when there was a splendid fete at Bombay, given by the Governor. It was attended by ambassadors from all parts of the Indian Empire, and from neighbouring countries. The Orientals looked upon the long reign as a proof of Divine favour, and were most enthusiastic in their congratulations. An eye-witness wrote at the time that “the Jubilee at Bombay was celebrated with the greatest judgment, taste, splendour, and effect.”

As in 1809 so in 1887—India has been first in celebrating the Royal Jubilee.

The Preparations
As soon as it was settled that the 25th October, 1809, was to be the Jubilee Day the more active preparations wore begun, though at first there was not much energy displayed, and many proposals were taken up in a halfhearted way, which presaged failure. In explanation of this comparative inertness, it must be admitted that the country could hardly be said to have been in a condition for rejoicing of any kind, much less for entering heart and soul into the festivities of a National Jubilee. The health of the King was certainly still precarious, and his failing sight made it quite impossible for him to attend, so as to appreciate, any public spectacle, and the Princess Amelia was at Weymouth, visibly wasting away. Many homes were in mourning for relatives lost in the terrible wars which were devastating the Continent, and not bringing too much glory to our troops: while at home both food and fuel were dear.

Still, compared with other European nations, the people of this land had, after all, good cause for rejoicing, and this feeling is prominently observable throughout the records of the national festivities. The Addresses to the King, the speeches at the banquets and at the village feasts, and the songs that were sung, all had the same burden, “Badly off as we are, is there another nation under the sun so happy and so free?”

The Jubilee Morn
Wednesday, the 25th of October, broke brightly and gave promise of fine weather. At day-dawn the bats, owls, and magpies in the old church tower of Berkhampstead must have been literally knocked off their perches when the crash of tho cannon which had been planted on the church roof woke the echoes, and saluted the morn with fifty rounds.

This hankering after high places was also displayed by the bands of musicians who climbed to the parapets of the churches and played as lustily as they could “that beautiful ode, God save the King.” Sometimes the anthem, “May the King live for ever,” was given by the village choir from the church steeple at sunrise, doubtless to the great delight of the loyal early risers. This singular style of jubilation was observed at Berkhampstead, Plymouth, Axminster, Haughton, Stafford, and other places.

The legitimate purpose of the church towers and steeples, namely, to fling forth what Charles Lamb so sweetly calls the “Music nighest bordering upon heaven,” was by no means forgotten. Every peal of bells in the kingdom was kept going, by relays of ready ringers, who took a pride in making the number of changes some multiple of fifty. At Southampton “grandsire triples” and “triple bob majors” made merry music all day long. The ringers must indeed have required an unlimited supply of the oft-mentioned “strong beer” to have been able to ring out, as they did, 1809 complete clangs on the sweet bells of Bromsgrove.

On the Jubilee Day of 1809 upwards of 2,000 poor people were feasted and made happy in this building. One hundred of the principal inhabitants, wearing scarves on which were embroidered the legend God save the King,” acted as carvers and stewards. The “strong beerwas supplied in numerous hogsheads, from which were filled clean scoured pails, placed at convenient distances along the tables. The scene was described as presenting one of the grandest and most interesting sights that ever human eye delighted in.” Hats were waved and nine hearty cheers were given in response to the Bang’s health, which “produced a spontaneous gush of joyful tears from all that either partook of the feast or witnessed the rapturous enjoyment.”

At the same time, similar scenes on a smaller scale were being witnessed in the towns; and, in the villages, though the numbers assembled were necessarily less, yet the enjoyment was quite as great.

The Illuminations
Although there was at first some opposition to the proposed general illumination, partly on account of the cost, and partly for fear of the rabble, popular opinion was unmistakably in favour of it, and the Times on the day after the Rejoicings gave a glowing account of the Festivities. Speaking of the illuminations, it says that “Daylight was scarcely gone when the full blaze burst forth upon the eye, in all the skill of art, and in all the radiant splendour and varied magnificence of the general illumination of the British Capital.”

For some weeks previously the newspapers had published advertisements of special devices—Japanese lamps, lamp frames, and chandeliers for illumination. In private houses the usual plan was to fix in every window a candle in a tin sconce, while the more elaborate arrangements included tin chandeliers made to hold five, seven, or more specially made Jubilee candles, and these were hung in the windows.

For out-door illuminations coloured lamps, made for the purpose, were filled with oil and supplied with a floating wick, or fitted with dumpy candles like our night lights. These lamps were hung on long nails fixed in boards, and arranged according to roughly drawn and coloured designs. The process of lighting was very tedious. For instance, the Bank of England had 18,000 lamps for their illuminations, and it took all the hands the contractors could get over six hours to complete the lighting. Innumerable transparencies brightened up blank spaces and gave a pleasing variety to the grand spectacle, which seen under the most favourable conditions of wind and weather, was enjoyed by a great, but orderly throng. There was no disturbance of any kind in the streets of the metropolis, and there were no conflagrations reported next day.

In the provinces opinion was divided as to the desirability of an illumination. At Wellington candles were distributed gratis, but many towns, including Hull, Wakefield, Warwick, and Shrewsbury, preferred fireworks or bonfires. Lathom House seems to have carried off the bonfire palm. Coal gas as a light for domestic use was quite a novelty, and some towns celebrated the Jubilee by lighting their streets with gas for the first time. It was tried as an experiment in an illumination at Manchester, and spoken of as “a curious preparation called gas.”

While many larger cities issued proclamations and made plans for large scale celebrations, the city of Bath is of especial interest:

The Mayor and Corporation, accompanied by the Bath Volunteers and the Friendly Societies, thirty-three in number, containing 2,487 members, each Society distinguished by its particular banner and colours, went in grand procession to the Abbey Church. Part of the Societies went to Walcot Church. Collections were made at the doors of both churches for the benevolent purpose of releasing the debtors in the County Gaol.

On returning to the Hall, cakes and wine were given to the juvenile part of the procession. The Volunteers marched to the Crescent Field, where they fired a feu de joie; and the members of the Friendly Societies departed to their respective club-rooms, in which they dined together in much harmony; each man received Is. 6d. towards his expenses from the public subscription. Between 200 and 300 persons, including children of the Sunday School, were regaled at dinner by the managers of the Argyle Chapel. The Sheriffs, George Cook and George Lye, Esquires, generously opened the prison doors of the city, and at their own costs released every debtor. The Mayor and Corporation, the Clergy, and a select party, dined at the White Hart. In the evening there was a ball at the Town Hall. Jubilee medals and sashes were generally worn. The sashes were worn across the shoulders, and were made of purple satin ribbon about two inches wide, and were inscribed in gold lace letters with the words, “For the glorious Jubilee of our beloved and adored Sovereign, King George The Third. England rejoice as a favoured nation. 25th October, 1809.”

The following Address was transmitted to the King by the Earl Camden, Recorder of Bath.

To the KING’S Mot t Excellent Majesty.

THE Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council of your Majesty’s loyal and ancient City of Bath, in special Hall assembled, again approach the Throne with the strongest Expression of Respect and Gratitude. Respect for your eminent Virtues, and Gratitude to God who has prolonged a Life fo justly dear to every Briton, and enabled him joyfully to celebrate the Commencement of the Fiftieth Year of your Reign.

The Annals of this Kingdom present but few Instances of a Reign marked by the like Duration; none in which Events so momentous have occurred, and Difficulties so numerous have been encountered. Yet whatever Distradlion has seized, whatever Anarchy overthrown other Governments of Europe, we have happily seen, during your Majesty’s just and equitable Sway, the general Face of the Kingdom amended; the Intercourse of Places far remote facilitated; Agriculture improved, and the barren Heath made fertile: We behold not only useful Commerce, but the polite Arts luxuriantly flourish; and, above all, we feel a conscious Pride that our national Faith has never been broken, nor our Honour sullied.

These are Benefits which we have enjoyed from the Fortitude and Zeal of a good and patriotic King, to whose Example, and strict Regard to religious Duties we presume to attribute the Blessing of being considered by the Almighty as a favoured People; and that this Empire is preserved unimpaired amidst the Wreck and Desolation of other Parts of the civilized World.

We with Pleasure recollect, that when your Majesty ascended the Throne of this Realm, you exultingly said, ” Born and educated in the Country, I glory in the Name of a Briton.” We have now, for nearly Half a Century, felt the Truth of that Declaration; and, who, that merits the name of a Briton, but mull glory in such a King!

Permit us, Sire, to conclude: May every blessing distinguish the Period of your Majesty’s Reign that can result from a Life of Virtue and an Age of Honour! I This is our earnest Prayer: our fervent Hope is, that your illustrious family may continue as immortal in these Islands as the Liberties and Constitution it has so long protected and so firmly maintained!

Given under our Common Seal of the said City this 30th Day of October, in the Fiftieth Year of your Majesty’s Reign.


Jubilee Medals
Amongst other memorials of King George’s Jubilee still to be found in the museums, or preserved as heirlooms, are the medals and tokens which were struck in honour of the occasion. A good specimen of these souvenirs is a gold locket of octagon shape about an inch and a-half long, and one and a quarter wide. On the obverse side is inserted, under glass, a portrait of the King, and on the back is engraved George III  in the 50th year of his reign stamp’d by the hand of nature. Jubilee Medals were struck at Birmingham, Gloucester, and Tewkesbury, and at the Mint on Tower Hill. Two of the best are hero reproduced in facsimile, they are both beautifully engraved.

George III Jubilee Medal

George III Jubilee Medal
On the reverse of this medal, “50” should be “50th.” A splendidly cut wreath of oak leaves and acorns surrounds the words, Grand National Jubilee Oct 25, 1809, and the wreath is bound together by a ribbon on which is inscribed Give God Praise. This same medal was also struck in gold and silver, and there are some specimens of it in silver gilt.

George III And Queen Charlotte Jubilee Medal

George III And Queen Charlotte Jubilee Medal
The other medal, here engraved, is hardly as well executed as the former. The likeness of the Queen is however excellent. On the reverse is a somewhat straggling wreath of oak encircling the following inscription: GRAND NATIONAL JUBILEE, Celebrated Oct. 25, A.d. 1809, In Commemoration Of The Accession Of His Majesty King George The Third To The Throne Op The Imperial Realms Of Great Britain And Ireland, October 25th, 1760.

Our final view of the celebrations comes from George Freeston’s contributions to ‘Round and About’ the Blisworth Village Magazine (Spring 1977, Issue No 6).  Perhaps these celebrations most closely resemble the exuberance a small town like Chawton might have shown in celebrating their beloved monarch’s reign:

“Through village records of past Royal occasions I see that the people of Blisworth never failed in ‘celebrating well’ the special day.  George III had his Jubilee in 1809.  (I don’t think any of you will remember that).  The morning was ushered in at an early hour by the ringing of the church bells and the flag was hoisted on the tower.  At 10am a fat sheep ‘dead’ was drawn around the village preceded by the church band and much flag waving.

The sheep was duly roasted whole and distributed among the poor people with bread and butter in equal proportions to each family.  The women of the village were also provided with cake and tea at a street party.  The ‘respectable’ inhabitants gathered at the ‘Grafton Arms’ for their supper, and harmony and convivial mirth crowned the festivities of the day.”



Compiled by Laura Boyle.

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Kings and Princes: Lives of the Georgian Royalty

George III: A Personal History
by Christopher Hibbert

I did enjoy this book, Hibbert has a way of including small details of life within the larger context of of his subject which gives wonderful insight into both his subjects and the time he is writing of. For instance the quotes from Fanny Burney’s diaries of life in Court and the stiflingly formal dress and code of conduct to which they had to adhere.

In some ways I found the chapters a bit muddling. The book doesn’t follow a complete continuum of time from start to finish. The chapters are all in an ordered timeline, but often the subject digresses and they will discuss events that take place years in advance. It isn’t a complaint, I just found it an interesting way of approaching the topic, and quite different from the previous books of Hibbert’s that I have read.

This is a very sympathetic biography but very interesting. It is easy to see the King slipping into madness and why – and to pick the signs (such as his frenetic energy). It is also more than just an account of a mad King though and I enjoyed it for the depth of focus it bought.

Well worth reading.

Paperback: 480 pages
Publisher: Penguin Books Ltd
ISBN: 0140257373

Royal Dukes:
The father and uncles of Queen Victoria
by Roger Fulford


They have to reprint this book one day – or perhaps the time is right to do a more indepth look at the lives of the Dukes – really this book and Dorothy Margaret Stuart’s book The Daughters of King George are the only substantial books written on the children of King George III. (with the exception of the Prince Regent of course)

It is surprising there haven’t been more books on the Royal Dukes. Their lives were rich with juicy scandal, (murders, gossip of incest, whippings, failed careers, prostitutes, secret marriages and scads of illegitimate children). Of course as Fulford also shows us their lives were also full of a great deal of excellent public service. The Duke of York in the army, Duke of Clarence (later William IV) the Navy, and the Duke of Cumberland in Hanover.

Fulford allows a chapter for each of the six Royal Dukes as well as one by way of an introduction to their parents, King George and Queen Charlotte, which includes some detail on their childhood and the dominance which the Dukes’s father held over them throughout their adult lives.

This is an intelligent and entertaining look at The Royal House of Hanover, beautifully researched and humourously presented. A great little reference book.

Unknown Binding: 318 pages
Publisher: Collins; New and revised ed edition (1973)
Language: English
ISBN: 0002117274

Anne Woodley is an Amazon top 500 reviewer as well as the patroness of Janeites, the Internet discussion, as well as mistress of the Regency Ring. Her excellent page, The Regency Collection is a treasure trove of information.

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George III: King of Great Britain and Ireland

I had just left off writing and put on my things for walking to Alton, when Anna and her friend Harriot called in their way thither, so we went together. Their business was to provide mourning against the King’s death, and my mother has had a bombasin bought for her. I am not sorry to be back again, for the young ladies had a great deal to do, and without much method in doing it.
Jane Austen to Cassandra
June 6, 1811

George III was king of England for Jane Austen’s entire life. When incapacitated by illness in 1811 (with his death predicted at every turn) power was transferred from the King to the Prince of Wales, thereby making the future George IV Regent and giving the era the name “The Regency”. In reality, George III would linger on for another nine years, outliving Jane Austen, herself, who died in 1817.

George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) (New Style dates) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. He was concurrently Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and thus Elector (and later King) of Hanover. The Electorate became the Kingdom of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, and the first of Hanover to be born in Britain and speak English as his first language. In fact, he never visited Germany.

It was during George III’s reign that Great Britain lost many of its colonies in North America in the wake of the American Revolution. These colonies would eventually become the United States. Also during his reign the realms of Great Britain and Ireland were joined together to form the United Kingdom.

Later in his reign George III suffered from recurrent and, eventually, permanent mental illness. This baffled medical science at the time, although it is now generally thought that he suffered from the blood disease porphyria. Recently, owing to studies showing high levels of the poison arsenic in King George’s hair, arsenic is also thought to be a possible cause of King George’s insanity and health problems. After a final relapse in 1810, George’s eldest son, George, Prince of Wales ruled as Prince Regent. Upon George’s death, the Prince of Wales succeeded his father as George IV.


Early Life

His Royal Highness Prince George of Wales was born in London at Norfolk House and was the son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and the grandson of George II. Prince George’s mother was Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As Prince George was born two months premature and was thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by the Rector of St James’s. He was publicly baptised by the Bishop of Oxford, Thomas Secker, at Norfolk House on 4 July 1738 (New Style). His godparents were the King of Sweden (for whom Lord Baltimore stood proxy), the Duke of Saxe-Gotha (for whom the Duke of Chandos stood proxy) and the Queen of Prussia (for whom Lady Charlotte Edwin, a daughter of the Duke of Hamilton, stood proxy).

George grew into a healthy child but his grandfather George II disliked the Prince of Wales and took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury, and Prince George became heir apparent to the throne. He inherited one of his father’s titles and became the Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks later the King created George Prince of Wales. In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James’s Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidante, Lord Bute, who would later serve as Prime Minister. George’s mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, mistrusted her father-in-law and preferred to keep George separate from his company.


In 1759 George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, daughter of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. “I am born for the happiness and misery of a great nation,” he wrote, “and consequently must often act contrary to my passion.” Nevertheless, attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophia Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother.

The following year, George inherited the Crown when his grandfather, George II, died suddenly on 25 October 1760. The search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761, the King married in the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight later, both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress (in contrast with both his Hanoverian predecessors and his sons), and the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage. They had 15 children — nine sons and six daughters.

Early Reign

The first few years of George’s reign were marked by political instability, largely generated as a result of disagreements over the Seven Years’ War. The favouritism which George initially showed towards Tory ministers led to his denunciation by the Whigs as an autocrat in the manner of Charles I. In May 1762, George replaced the incumbent Whig ministry of the Duke of Newcastle with one led by the Tory Lord Bute. The following year, after concluding the Peace of Paris ending the war, Lord Bute resigned, allowing the Whigs under George Grenville to return to power. Later that year, the British government under George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that placed a boundary upon the westward expansion of the American colonies. The Proclamation’s goal was to force colonists to negotiate with the Native Americans for the lawful purchase of the land and, therefore, to reduce the costly frontier warfare that had erupted over land conflicts. The Proclamation Line, as it came to be known, was extremely unpopular with the Americans and ultimately became another wedge between the colonists and the British government that would eventually lead to war. With the American colonists generally unburdened by British taxes, the government found it increasingly difficult to pay for the defence of the colonies against native uprisings and the possibility of French incursions. In 1765, Grenville introduced the Stamp Act, which levied a stamp duty on all documents in the British colonies in North America. Meanwhile, the King had become exasperated at Grenville’s attempts to reduce the King’s prerogatives, and tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade William Pitt the Elder to accept the office of Prime Minister. After a brief illness, which may have presaged his illnesses to come, George settled on Lord Rockingham to form a ministry, and dismissed Grenville.

Lord Rockingham, with the support of Pitt, repealed Grenville’s unpopular Stamp Act, but his government was weak and he was replaced in 1766 by Pitt, whom George created Earl of Chatham. The actions of Lord Chatham and George III in repealing the Act were so popular in America that statues of them both were erected in New York City. Lord Chatham fell ill in 1767, allowing the Duke of Grafton to take over government, although he did not formally become Prime Minister until 1768. His government disintegrated in 1770, allowing the Tories to return to power.

The government of the new Prime Minister, Lord North, was chiefly concerned with discontent in America. To assuage American opinion most of the custom duties were withdrawn, with the exception of the tea duty, which in George’s words was “one tax to keep up the right [to levy taxes]”. In 1773, a Boston mob threw 342 crates of tea, costing approximately £10,000, into Boston Harbour as a political protest, an event that became known as the Boston tea party. In Britain, opinion hardened against the colonists, with Chatham now agreeing with North that the destruction of the tea was “certainly criminal”. Lord North introduced the Punitive Acts, known as the Coercive Acts or the Intolerable Acts by the colonists: the Port of Boston was shut down and legislative elections in the Colony of Massachusetts Bay were suspended. Up to this point, in the words of Professor Peter Thomas, George’s “hopes were centred on a political solution, and he always bowed to his cabinet’s opinions even when sceptical of their success. The detailed evidence of the years from 1763 to 1775 tends to exonerate George III from any real responsibility for the American Revolution.”

American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War began when armed conflict between British regulars and colonial militiamen broke out in New England in April 1775. A month later, delegates of the thirteen British colonies drafted a peace proposal known as the Olive Branch Petition. The proposal was quickly rejected in London because fighting had already erupted. A year later, on July 4, 1776 (American Independence Day), the colonies declared their independence from the Crown and became a new nation, the “United States of America”. The Declaration was a long list of grievances against the British King, legislature, and populace. Amongst George’s other offences, the Declaration charged, “He has abdicated Government here… He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.” George was indignant when he learned of the opinions of the colonists. In the war the British captured New York City in 1776, but the grand strategic plan of invading from Canada failed with the surrender of the British Lieutenant-General John Burgoyne at the Battle of Saratoga. In 1778, France (Great Britain’s chief rival) signed a treaty of friendship with the new United States. Lord North asked to transfer power to Lord Chatham, whom he thought more capable. George, however, would hear nothing of such suggestions; he suggested that Chatham serve as a subordinate minister in Lord North’s administration. Chatham refused to cooperate, and died later in the same year. Great Britain was then at war with France, and in 1779 it was also at war with Spain.

George III obstinately tried to keep Great Britain at war with the rebels in America, despite the opinions of his own ministers. Lord Gower and Lord Weymouth both resigned rather than suffer the indignity of being associated with the war. Lord North advised George III that his (North’s) opinion matched that of his ministerial colleagues, but stayed in office. Eventually, George gave up hope of subduing America by more armies. “It was a joke,” he said, “to think of keeping Pennsylvania”. There was no hope of ever recovering New England. But the King was determined “never to acknowledge the independence of the Americans, and to punish their contumacy by the indefinite prolongation of a war which promised to be eternal.” His plan was to keep the 30,000 men garrisoned in New York, Rhode Island, in Canada, and in Florida; other forces would attack the French and Spanish in the West Indies. To punish the Americans the King planned to destroy their coasting-trade, bombard their ports, sack and burn towns along the coast (like New London, Connecticut), and turn loose the Indians to attack civilians in frontier settlements. These operations, the King felt, would inspire the Loyalists; would splinter the Congress; and “would keep the rebels harassed, anxious, and poor, until the day when, by a natural and inevitable process, discontent and disappointment were converted into penitence and remorse” and they would beg to return to his authority. The plan meant destruction for the Loyalists and loyal Indians, and indefinite prolongation of a costly war, as well as the risk of disaster as the French and Spanish were assembling an armada to invade the British isles and seize London.

The surrender of British Major General Charles Cornwallis at Yorktown, 1781

In 1781, the news of Lord Cornwallis’s surrender at the Siege of Yorktown reached London; Lord North’s parliamentary support ebbed away and he subsequently resigned in 1782. After Lord North persuaded the king against abdicating, George III finally accepted the defeat in North America, and authorised the negotiation of a peace. The Treaty of Paris and the associated Treaty of Versailles were ratified in 1783. The former treaty provided for the recognition of the United States by Great Britain. The latter required Great Britain to give up Florida to Spain and to grant access to the waters of Newfoundland to France. When John Adams was appointed American Minister to Britain in 1785, George had become resigned to the new relationship between his country and the United States, “I was the last to consent to the separation; but” he told Adams, “I would be the first to meet the friendship of the United States as an independent power.”

With the collapse of Lord North’s ministry in 1782, the Whig Lord Rockingham became Prime Minister for the second time, but died within months. The King then appointed Lord Shelburne to replace him. Charles James Fox, however, refused to serve under Shelburne, and demanded the appointment of the Duke of Portland. In 1783, the House of Commons forced Lord Shelburne from office and his government was replaced by the Fox-North Coalition. The Duke of Portland became Prime Minister; Fox and Lord North, Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary respectively, really held power, with Portland acting as a figurehead.

George III was distressed by the attempts to force him to appoint ministers not of his liking, but the Portland ministry quickly built up a majority in the House of Commons, and could not easily be displaced. He was, however, extremely dissatisfied when the government introduced the India Bill, which proposed to reform the government of India by transferring political power from the Honourable East India Company to Parliamentary commissioners. Immediately after the House of Commons passed it, George authorised Lord Temple to inform the House of Lords that he would regard any peer who voted for the bill as his enemy. The bill was rejected by the Lords; three days later, the Portland ministry was dismissed, and William Pitt the Younger was appointed Prime Minister, with Temple as his Secretary of State. On 17 December 1783, Parliament voted in favour of a motion condemning the influence of the monarch in parliamentary voting as a “high crime” and Temple was forced to resign. Temple’s departure destabilised the government, and three months later the government lost its majority and Parliament was dissolved; the subsequent election gave Pitt a firm mandate.

For George III, Pitt’s appointment was a great victory. The King felt that the scenario proved that he still had the power to appoint Prime Ministers without having to rely on any parliamentary group. Throughout Pitt’s ministry, George eagerly supported many of his political aims. To aid Pitt, George created new peers at an unprecedented rate. The new peers flooded the House of Lords and allowed Pitt to maintain a firm majority. During Pitt’s ministry, George III was extremely popular. The public supported the exploratory voyages to the Pacific Ocean that he sanctioned. George also aided the Royal Academy with large grants from his private funds. The British people admired their King for remaining faithful to his wife, unlike the two previous Hanoverian monarchs. Great advances were made in fields such as in science and industry.

However, by this time George III’s health was deteriorating. He suffered from a mental illness, now widely believed to be a symptom of porphyria. A study of the King’s hair samples reveal high levels of arsenic, a possible trigger for the disease. The King may have previously suffered a brief episode of the disease in 1765, but a longer episode began in the summer of 1788. George was sufficiently sane to prorogue Parliament on 25 September 1788, but his condition worsened and in November he became seriously deranged, sometimes speaking for many hours without pause. With his doctors largely at a loss to explain his illness, spurious stories about his condition spread, such as the claim that he shook hands with a tree in the mistaken belief that it was the King of Prussia. When Parliament reconvened in November, the King could not, as was customary, communicate to them the agenda for the upcoming legislative session. According to long-established practice, Parliament could not begin the transaction of business until the King had made the Speech from the Throne. Parliament, however, ignored the custom and began to debate provisions for a regency.

Charles James Fox and William Pitt wrangled over the terms of which individual was entitled to take over government during the illness of the Sovereign. Although both parties agreed that it would be most reasonable for George III’s eldest son and heir-apparent, the Prince of Wales, to act as Regent, they disagreed over the basis of a regency. Fox suggested that it was the Prince of Wales’s absolute right to act on his ill father’s behalf; Pitt argued that it was for Parliament to nominate a Regent. Proceedings were further delayed as the authority for Parliament to merely meet was questioned, as the session had not been formally opened by the Sovereign. Pitt proposed a remedy based on an obscure legal fiction. As was well-established at the time, the Sovereign could delegate many of his functions to Lords Commissioners by letters patent, which were validated by the attachment of the Great Seal. It was proposed that the custodian of the Great Seal, the Lord Chancellor, affix the Seal without the consent of the Sovereign. Although such an action would be unlawful, it would not be possible to question the validity of the letters patent, as the presence of the Great Seal would be deemed conclusive in court. George III’s second son, the Prince Frederick, Duke of York, denounced Pitt’s proposal as “unconstitutional and illegal”. Nonetheless, the Lords Commissioners were appointed and then opened Parliament. In February 1789, the Regency Bill, authorising the Prince of Wales to act as Prince Regent, was introduced and passed in the House of Commons. But before the House of Lords could pass the bill, George III recovered from his illness under the treatment of Dr Francis Willis. He confirmed the actions of the Lords Commissioners as valid, but resumed full control of government.

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars

After George recovered from his illness, his popularity, and that of Pitt, greatly increased at the expense of Fox and the Prince of Wales. The French Revolution, in which the French monarchy had been overthrown, worried many British landowners. France subsequently declared war on Great Britain in 1793, and George soon represented the British resistance. George allowed Pitt to increase taxes, raise armies, and suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus in the war attempt.

As well-prepared as Great Britain may have been, France was stronger. The First Coalition (which included Austria, Prussia, and Spain) was defeated in 1798. The Second Coalition (which included Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire) was defeated in 1800. Only Great Britain was left fighting Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul of the French Republic. Perhaps surprisingly, a failed assassination attempt of May 15, 1800 was not political in origin but motivated by the religious delusions of his assailant, James Hadfield, who shot at the King in the Drury Lane Theatre during the playing of the national anthem.

Soon after 1800, a brief lull in hostilities allowed Pitt to concentrate on Ireland, where there had been an uprising in 1798. Parliament then passed the Act of Union 1800, which, on 1 January 1801, united Great Britain and Ireland into a single nation, known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. George used the opportunity to drop the claim to the Throne of France, which English and British Sovereigns had maintained since the reign of Edward III. It was suggested that George adopt the title “Emperor of the British and Hanoverian Dominions”, but he refused. A. G. Stapleton writes that George III “felt that his true dignity consisted in his being known to Europe and the world by the appropriated and undisputed style belonging to the British Crown.”

As part of his Irish policy, Pitt planned to remove certain legal disabilities that applied to Roman Catholics after the Union. George III claimed that to emancipate Catholics would be to violate his coronation oath, in which Sovereigns promise to maintain Protestantism. The King declared, “Where is the power on Earth to absolve me from the observance of every sentence of that oath, particularly the one requiring me to maintain the Protestant Reformed Religion? … No, no, I had rather beg my bread from door to door throughout Europe, than consent to any such measure. I can give up my crown and retire from power. I can quit my palace and live in a cottage. I can lay my head on a block and lose my life, but I cannot break my oath.” Faced with opposition to his religious reform policies from both the King and the British public, Pitt threatened to resign. At about the same time, the King suffered a relapse of his previous illness, which he blamed on worry over the Catholic question. On 14 March 1801, Pitt was formally replaced by the Speaker of the House of Commons, Henry Addington. As Addington was his close friend, Pitt remained as a private advisor. Addington’s ministry was particularly unremarkable, as almost no reforms were made or measures passed. In fact, the nation was strongly against the very idea of reform, having just witnessed the bloody French Revolution. Although they called for passive behaviour in the United Kingdom, the public wanted strong action in Europe, but Addington failed to deliver. In October 1801, he made peace with the French, and in 1802 signed the Treaty of Amiens.

George did not consider the peace with France as “real”; in his view it was an “experiment”. In 1803, the two nations once again declared war on each other. In 1804, George was again affected by his recurrent illness; on his recovery, he discovered that public opinion distrusted Addington to lead the nation in war, and instead favoured Pitt. Pitt sought to appoint Fox to his ministry, but George III refused as the King disliked Fox, who had encouraged the Prince of Wales to lead an extravagant and expensive life. Lord Grenville perceived an injustice to Fox, and refused to join the new ministry.

Pitt concentrated on forming a coalition with Austria, Russia, and Sweden. The Third Coalition, however, met the same fate as the First and Second Coalitions, collapsing in 1805. An invasion by Napoleon seemed imminent, but the possibility was extinguished after Admiral Lord Nelson’s famous victory at the Battle of Trafalgar.

The setbacks in Europe took a toll on William Pitt’s health. Pitt died in 1806, once again reopening the question of who should serve in the ministry. Lord Grenville became Prime Minister, and his “Ministry of All the Talents” included Charles James Fox. The King was conciliatory towards Fox, after being forced to capitulate over his appointment. After Fox’s death in September 1806, the King and ministry were in open conflict. The ministry had proposed a measure whereby Roman Catholics would be allowed to serve in all ranks of the Armed Forces. George not only instructed them to drop the measure, but also to make an agreement to never set up such a measure again. The ministers agreed to drop the measure then pending, but refused to bind themselves in the future. In 1807, they were dismissed and replaced by the Duke of Portland as the nominal Prime Minister, with actual power being held by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Spencer Perceval. Parliament was dissolved; the subsequent election gave the ministry a strong majority in the House of Commons. George III made no further major political decisions during his reign; the replacement of the Duke of Portland by Perceval in 1809 was of little actual significance.

In 1810, already virtually blind with cataracts and in pain from rheumatism, George III became dangerously ill. In his view the malady had been triggered by the stress he suffered at the death of his youngest and favourite daughter, Princess Amelia. As the Princess’s nurse reported, “the scenes of distress and crying every day…were melancholy beyond description.” By 1811, George III had become permanently insane and lived in seclusion at Windsor Castle until his death. He accepted the need for the Regency Act 1811, to which the Royal Assent was granted by the Lords Commissioners, appointed under the same irregular procedure as was adopted in 1788. The Prince of Wales acted as Regent for the remainder of George III’s life.

Spencer Perceval was assassinated in 1812 (the only British Prime Minister to have suffered such a fate) and was replaced by Lord Liverpool. Liverpool oversaw British victory in the Napoleonic Wars. The subsequent Congress of Vienna led to significant territorial gains for Hanover, which was upgraded from an electorate to a kingdom.

Meanwhile, George’s health deteriorated, eventually he became completely blind and increasingly deaf. He never knew that he was declared King of Hanover in 1814, or of the death of his wife in 1818. Over Christmas 1819, he spoke nonsense for 58 hours, and for the last few weeks of his life was unable to walk. On 29 January 1820, he died at Windsor Castle. His favourite son, Frederick, Duke of York, was with him. His death came six days after that of his fourth son, the Duke of Kent. George III was buried on 15 February in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor.

George was succeeded by two of his sons George IV and William IV, who both died without surviving legitimate children, leaving the throne to their niece, Victoria, the last monarch of the House of Hanover and the only legitimate child of the Duke of Kent.

George lived for 81 years and 239 days and reigned for 59 years and 96 days — in each case, more than any other English or British monarch until that point. This record has been surpassed only twice, by George’s granddaughter Queen Victoria and by Elizabeth II, who was 81 years old as of 2007. George III’s reign was longer than the reigns of all three of his immediate predecessors (Queen Anne, King George I and King George II) combined.

While tremendously popular in Britain, George was hated by rebellious American colonists (approximately one-third of the population in the colonies). The grievances in the United States Declaration of Independence were presented as “repeated injuries and usurpations” that he had committed to establish “an absolute Tyranny” over the colonies. The Declaration’s wording has contributed to the American public’s perception of George as a tyrant. Another factor that exacerbated American resentment was the King’s failure to intercede personally on the colonists’ behalf after the Olive Branch Petition. George was hated in Ireland for the atrocities carried out in his name during the suppression of the 1798 rebellion. British historians of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, such as Trevelyan, promoted hostile interpretations of George III’s life, however, scholars of the later twentieth century, such as Butterfield and Pares, and Macalpine and Hunter, are more inclined to be sympathetic, seeing him as a victim of circumstance and illness. Today, the long reign of George III is perceived as a continuation of the reduction in the political power of monarchy, and its growth as the embodiment of national morality.

The British Agricultural Revolution reached its peak under George III. The period provided for unprecedented growth in the rural population, which in turn provided much of the workforce for the concurrent Industrial Revolution. George III has been nicknamed Farmer George, for “his plain, homely, thrifty manners and tastes” and because of his passionate interest in agriculture.

From Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia.

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How to Cut a Silhouette

During the Regency, Candles, the primary form of artificial light available, were not only utilitarian. They also provided a source of evening entertainment. A candle brought close to a person’s profile could cast a shadow on a piece of paper attached to the wall that might be drawn around and blacked in with lampblack or gauche resulting in a silhouette. In those days before photography, a silhouette provided a simple and inexpensive way of taking someone’s likeness. Because anyone could create a silhouette, their making became a popular party activity in the 18th and 19th century. Jane Austen did not portray this activity in her books but silhouettes of Austen family members exist.

The term “silhouette” derived from the name of Etienne de Silhouette (1709-1767), a Frenchman who was a finance minister to Louis XV. Etienne de Silhouette, though not the originator of this type of tracing, became synonymous with the art form because of his ability to create elaborate pieces. The English called them “shades.” Making silhouettes was a favorite pastime at the court of George III. The King loved to throw shade parties.

In 1775, Mrs. Samuel Harrington invented the pantograph. This mechanical device could be used to enlarging or reduce the size of a drawing. A silhouette, normally made life size, could be reduced to a smaller size using the pantograph. These miniature silhouettes were extremely popular because they could be used in jewelry such as lockets and cameos.

How to Cut a Silhouette

  1. Hang a large piece of white paper on the wall of a darkened room.
  2. Have a person sit in front of the paper.
  3. Shine a desk lamp at the person to create a defined shadow on the paper.
  4. Have the sitter turn sideways so that the shadow is a profile. Tell him or her to sit very still.
  5. Use a pencil to draw an outline of the sitter’s head, neck and the top of his or her shoulders.
  6. Use a copy machine to reduce the drawing to the size you want.
  7. Use a glue stick to fasten the copy to a sheet of black paper.
  8. Cut around the outline.
  9. Pull the white paper off the black one, flip the black one over and stick it on the front of a blank greeting card or on a sheet of light-colored paper.


If you use a halogen floor lamp, you can get very sharp detail.

The closer to the person you set the lamp, the smaller and more defined the silhouette will be.

Silhouette information taken from Sharon Wagoner’s article, Period Lighting and Silhouette Making. Sharon is Curator of The Georgian Index. Visit this site for a historical tour through Regency London!

Silhouette information copied from

Buy Jane and Cassandra silhouettes from our giftshop! Click here.

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Seabathing, In Georgian Style


Seabathing, In Georgian Style

While Bath and other interior Spa towns remained popular places for Regency vacationers and invalids alike, by the 1790’s a new fad had sprung up: Sea-bathing. Prescribed by doctors as early as 1750, things really took off when George III chose to recuperate in Weymouth in 1789, giving this treatment the Royal stamp of approval.

The Austens enjoyed many sea-side holidays and Jane sent several characters to various sea side resorts for adventures. Lydia travels to Brighton to meet her fate while Georgiana Darcy shares a similar experience in Ramsgate, Anne and Captain Wentworth share a fateful day in Lyme, the Knightly children spend the summer sea-bathing on the advice of their doctor, Jane Fairfax and Frank Churchill meet and become engaged at Weymouth and Emma honeymoons by the sea. Even Jane’s unfinished novel, Sanditon, is set in a seaside resort town of the same name.

BathingmachineSea-bathing was merely an extension of the indoor spa bathing practiced at the various bath houses and hot springs located around England. The most obvious difference in this Regency form of exercise which sets it apart from its modern day equivalent are the conditions under which it was prescribed. While one would suppose the summer months to be the most popular in which to visit, view and even bathe in the ocean, doctors of the time often prescribed immersion in the coldest water available- records of the Austen family’s visits range from September to February and nearly every month in between. Brrrr!

In 1791, Jane’s cousin and future sister-in-law Eliza spent January and February in Margate for the sake of her small son. A Doctor, she wrote, had assured her that “one month’s bathing at this time of year was more efficacious than six at any other…The sea has strengthened him wonderfully, and I think has likewise been of great service to myself. I still continue bathing notwithstanding the severity of weather and frost and snow [!], which I think is somewhat courageous.” I find it courageous too! Austen, herself, went bathing on several occasions during a visit to Lyme in September 1804.

In Persuasion, Mary Musgrove goes bathing during their extended stay in Lyme in November. One can hardly imagine plump Mary strutting her stuff on a beach, but how else was this to be accomplished? Another passage from the same book tells us, “the principal street almost hurrying into the water, the walk to the Cobb, skirting round the pleasant little bay, which, in the season, is animated with bathing machines and company…are what the stranger’s eye will seek.” Ah! The Bathing Machine. But what is that?

BathingmachineThe Bathing Machine, invented in the early 1700’s by Benjamin Beale, was a wooden hut built on wheels into which a Regency lady could ascend. Once inside, she could change into garments suitable for bathing (in most cases a muslin shift) The vehicle would then be pulled by horses or a bathing-woman out into to ocean until the water was about shoulder deep where the lady would descend the stairs with the aid of the bathing woman (called a Dipper) and, once submerged, begin to enjoy all the healthful benefits of the sea. In such a way, the ladies of the upper class were able to enjoy the ocean, while preserving their modesty.

A terrific example of a period bathing machine can be seen in the film Mrs. Brown, which stars Judi Dench as Queen Victoria.


Austentation Regency Accessories
Laura Sauer runs Austentation, a company that specializes in custom made Regency Accessories.

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Court Dresses for ‘the Birth-day’ of the King

court dresses

In July, 1807, the ‘Court’ was invited to celebrate King George III’s Birthday– one of the last he would entertain as reigning monarch. The following description of the Court Dresses worn, will dazzle, while offering up some very familiar names, including the Princess of Wales, the Duchess of York and even a Miss Cavendish! Enjoy this treat for the imagination.


Fashions For July, 1807:
Explanation of the Prints of Fashion.

English Costume

No. 1.— Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales in Her Court Dress, As
Worn On The Birth-day.

This dress, for taste and magnificence, stood unrivalled amidst the
splendour and elegance displayed on the Birth-Day of our justly revered
Sovereign; and we consider ourselves fortunate in having it in our power to
procure a representation of it for our fair correspondents.

The body and ground of the drapery was formed of a rich silver and lilac
tissue; with a most superb border, composed of emeralds, topazes, and
amethysts, to represent the vine-leaf and grapes. The train and petticoat of
silver tissue; bordered all round like the drapery ; and each terminated
with a most brilliant silver fringe of a strikingly novel formation. Rich
silver laurel and arrow on the left side, to loop up the train. Head-dress
of diamonds and amethysts, tastefully disposed; with high plume of ostrich
feathers. Neck-dress, the winged ruff, a la Mary Queen of Scots; sleeve
ornaments to correspond. Ameythyst necklace and earrings, with
Maltese cross; diamond armlets and bracelets. White satin shoes, with rich
silver rosettes. French kid gloves, above the elbow. Fan of Imperial crape,
studded with amethysts and topazes.


Parisian Fashions

No. 2.- Taken From a Group Of Conversation Figures at the Frescati, In

Ladies Dress.—A white Italian crape robe, over a white satin slip,
ornamented round the bottom and drapery with a border of shells, painted to
nature. Plain scolloped bosom cut very low, and made to sit close to the
form. Waved sleeves, easily full, formed of alternate stripes of crape and
pink satin. Hair, bound in smooth bands, confined on the forehead, and
ornamented behind with wreaths of wild roses. Earrings and necklace of
pearls. Shoes, pink satin, trimmed with silver. White kid gloves, rucked.

General Observations on the Fashions for the Season

With a complete List qf Ladies in their Court Dresses, as worn on the

As there is little alteration in the general style of personal decoration
since our last communication, and as our elegant and extensive collection of
Court Dresses will occupy much space, and we doubt not, prove highly
acceptable to our readers, we shall simply notice a few particular articles,
which strike us as most novel and graceful, and hasten to give our
delineations of Court splendour.

The most distinguishable style of hat is a complete gipsy, with the lowest
possible crown; 2nd some of our elegant females wear an entire round flat
chip, tied across the crown with a coloured patent-net handkerchief,
embroidered in a border of natural flowers. The small French bonnet, and
cottage poke, are also in general request. The former are composed of
coloured figured sarsnet; the latter of muslin, or leno, lined with coloured
Persian; and each we usually worn with the promenade tippet, of the same

For a morning, the fugitive coat, of cambric, or muslin, with a deep collar,
pointed in front, and finished with the acorn tassel, is considered simple
and elegant. With these last mentioned articles, the gipsy hat, of satin
straw, with the magic or bee-hive crown, is most appropriate and becoming;
but no flowers can be consistently admitted in the morning costume. The
round French robe, the Algerine vest, and the mantle wrap, are each amidst
the last offerings of taste and fashion ; and are formed of undrest crape,
Angola silk, or muslin. Dresses and robes are often seen in plain coloured
muslins, ornamented with Vandyke lace; and with them is worn the Anne Bullen
cap, which is considered the most novel and simple article of the kind that
has been introduced for a length of time. The head-dress continues in the
antique and Grecian style; and the hair is parted on the forehead a-la-Cleopatra, or Madona.

The backs of dresses are a little advanced in fashionable circles, since our
last information ; and the bosom is usually made to sit close to the form.
In full-dress, the sleeve is shorter than ever; but in the morning (and
frequently in the evening dress) the long sleeve is adopted universally.

Walking dresses are now made rather longer than we have witnessed for some time; so that, in walking, they just offer a graceful occupation for the hand. Trains again form a part of the evening costume, except for dancing, when they are invariably made short, and formed in the Arcadian style.

Vandyke and shell-scollop trimmings, in lace or work, ornament almost every article of fashionable attire; and pointed drapery, tastefully disposed, has entirely exploded almost every other. The Flemish spensers, with flowing scarfs, are now become too general to find a place amidst a fashionable selection. The spenser is, however, so convenient and generally becoming an article, that we still continue our recommendation of it to those females who wish to adopt the intermediate style. Scarfs are less seen this summer than we ever remember them; but the Etruscan mantle, and the order of the gipsy and Spanish cloak, are still conspicuous amidst the gay and fashionable throng. Flowers, in full dress, are at this time the prevailing ornaments, both as decorations for the head, and trimmings for robes. Wreaths of the oak leaf, of the hop blossom, wild roses, | honey-suckle, pea-blossom, horse chesnut, rocklily, etc. etc. will be found distinguishable ornaments on the Birth-day.

The following correct list of Court Dresses, will at ouce exhibit the
standard for full dress; as well as the most prevailing colours forlhe
season. We give them en train.

Her Majesty.—A lilac and silver tissue petticoat, trimmed with draperies of point Brussels lace, with point lace of the same description, flowered round the pocket holes; the front of the draperies superbly ornamented with large diamond rosettes, from which were suspended diamond bows and tassels. The under drapery fancifully ornamented with diamonds in diagonal stripes. The mantle to correspond with the drapery.

Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales.—The drapery and body of rich silver and lilac tissue most magnificently embroidered with emeralds, topaz and amethyst stones, to form vine leaves and grapes, entwined with wreaths of diamonds in stars and shells; at the bottom of the drapery a very rich silver fringe of quite a new pattern; the train and petticoat of silver tissue, with a border all round to correspond with that on the drapery; also a rich silver fringe all round the train and petticoat, with rich silver laurel to loop up the drapery and pocket-holes: the head-dress of diamonds and ostrich feathers. (Plate)

Her Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte of Wales.—A pink and sliver slip, with a beautiful Brussels lace frock to wear over it, and a pink and silver girdle.

Her Royal Highness the Princess Augusta.—Yellow crape petticoat richly embroidered with silver; a sash across with a border of honey-suckles, and rich pointed embroidered draperies. Body and train to correspond.

Her Royal Highness the Princess Elizabeth.—A superb dress of apricot and silver tissue. The right side of the dress a magnificent drapery, composed of an Etruscan net of large silver beads, tastefully divided at distances by a thick bullion of beads, chains of beads in dead silver relieved with bright bullion, elegantly ornamented with many wreaths of laurel in silver foil, and bouquets of chesnut blossoms, with the kernel bursting from the shell, formed the tout ensemble of this strikingly novel and elegant dress, which, for taste and effect, surpassed any dress of the kind we have observed. The bottom finished with a wreath of laurel in raised foil and beads. The whole looped up with large silver cords and tassels. Robe of apricot and silver tissue, trimmed with broad Vandyke silver fringe, point lace and diamonds.
Her Royal Highness Princess Mary.—Wore a magnificent dress of brown crape, embroidered with silver and pink roses over a petticoat of royal purple; oval draperies, richly spangled all over, and terminated with marking borders of dead and bright foil in vandykes, with roses beautifully interspersed lightly in the embroidery, the whole completed with elegant cords and tassels. Robe of brown, purple and silver tissue, trimmed with broad vandyke fringe, point lace, and diamonds.

Her Royal Highness the Princess Sophia.—A pea green petticoat, over which an elegant scarf drapery of the same colour, most magnificently embroidered in silver pines and branches; on the right side a wing of scale-embroidery of uncommon richness, and on the left a richly spangled drapery, most tastefully hung round the bottom of the petticoat. The robe of green and silver tissue, most elegantly trimmed with silver, and looped up on the sleeves with silver chains and acorns. Head-dress, an elegant plume of green and white feathers, with a profusion of diamonds.

Her Royal Highness Princess Amelia.—Petticoat of white crape richly spangled, and border a mosaic pattern. Draperies of purple Albany net with silver acorns; pockets formed with rich sprigs of laurel; train of handsomely embroidered purple tissue; on the left, a beautiful formed drapery of shell work, ornamented with Parisian trimming. The whole in appearance truly elegant and becoming to her Royal Highness, and we think it one of the handsomest dresses at Court.

Her Royal Highness the Duchess of York.—A white sarsnet petticoat, richly embroidered with an Etruscan border in silver draperies, a silver tissue drawn up and ornamented with a wreath of silver hoops, which had a very novel and elegant appearance. Train, silver tissue trimmed round with the wreaths of hop leaves; Brussels lace sleeves, with diamond armlets and broaches. Head- dress, diamonds and feathers.

Her Royal Highness Princess Sophia of Gloucester—wore a splendid dress of white and silver, superbly embroidered, and was much admired for taste and effect, the whole finished with a massy border at bottom. Her Royal Highness wore a robe of lilac and silver tissue, with rich embroidered sleeves and fronts.

Princess Castelcicala.—An elegant dress of lavender-coloured crape, fluted in divisions, trimmed with broad black lace, and ornamented with wreaths of fancy flowers, same colour as the dress and bows of ribband; robe of black lace trimmed all round with flowers.

Duchess of Northumberland.—A white crape petticoat, richly spangled in silver, and ornamented with silver grapes; train to correspond.

The Duchess of Rutland was elegantly dressed in a beautiful petticoat and train of straw coloured crape, with rich silver vine-leaves, and ropes of silver arrows.

Duchess of Dorset.—A rich embroidered silver crape, ornamented with lilac crape and silver tassels; train lilac crape.

Duchess of Leeds.—A brown dress, very richly embroidered with gold.

Duchess of Montrose.—A yellow crape petticoat, with a rich painted Grecian border; train yellow crape.

Duchess of Athol.—A white satin petticoat, with a lace drapery of Reine Marguerite flowers, appliqued on white satin; lace train.

Duchess of Buccleugh.—A very rich dress of brown and silver, superbly embroidered; brown train, elegantly ornamented with silver; head-dress brown and silver, with a profusion of diamonds.

Marchioness Dowager of Bath.—A petticoat of violet crape, embroidered in rich silver draperies, with a silver foil border, pocket holes richly trimmed, silver cords and tassels; body and train to correspond.

Countess of Cardigan.—A most beautiful rainbow green crape petticoat, with rich silver foil border; the drapery superbly spangled with rich embroidered border, ornamented with silver mellon beads, and silver cords and tassels; the body and train to correspond.

Countess of Malmsbury – (and the two Ladies Harris, her daughters) each simple elegant dresses of pale green crape, decorated with flowers; head-dress to correspond.

Countess of Uxbridge— A sky-blue crape petticoat, richly grounded with Imperial silver rings, a silver Vandyke border, with stripes of silver lama, representing wreaths of oak and lilac, tastefully worked on the petticoat; blue crape body and train.

Countess of Grosvenor.— A white crape petticoat grounded with silver Imperial rings, with draperies richly bordered with silver embroidered wheat ears and silver lama; the petticoat embroidered in waves, with an elegant foil border, Vandyke pocket-holes, with silver cords and tassels; body and train to correspond.

Countess of St. Vincent.— A white crape petticoat, grounded in silver spangles, and richly embroidered border, pocket-holes trimmed with silver, and silver cords and tassels; train to correspond.

Countess of Galloway.— A white crape petticoat, with rich silver foil border, the drapery richly embroidered with Trafalgar net border; body, sleeves, and train, richly ornamented with silver embroidered shell-work.

Countess of Oxford.— A white satin petticoat, with lace draperies, trimmed with pink French beads and wreaths of apple blossom; train to correspond; head- dress, feathers and diamonds.

Countess St. Martin De Front.— A dress of pale blue crape in draperies, ornamented with borders of net work, in beads and bands of the same, with handsome beads and tassels; robe pale blue sarsnet, trimmed with vandykes and beads, point lace, &c.

Countess of Kingston.— A white crape petticoat, most tastefully embroidered with silver wheat-ears; also embroidered drapery, drawn up with a very rich silver cord and tassels; the body and train of white satin, richly embroidered with silver, and trimmed with point lace.

Countess of Mendip.— A white crape petticoat, with a rich Vandyke silver foil border, edged with the real silver Lama; under this border was a silver chain, linked with the Prince’s plume; on the right side a Grecian drapery with a double Vandyke border, with sprigs of lilies of the valley; this drapery was looped up with a rich silver cord and tassels; the left drapery beautifully embroidered with silver roses, with the same border, and edged with a Trafalgar fringe; pocket-holes fancifully trimmed with wreaths of silver roses; train of silver tissue, trimmed to correspond.

Countess of Chesterfield.— A very rich dress of blue crape, embroidered with wreaths of rose leaves in the real silver; Oriental lame crescents, ornamented with large silver cords and tassels; train of blue crape, trimmed with silver; head-dress a plume of blue ostrich feathers and diamonds.

Countess of Dartmouth.—A white satin petticoat, with Mazarine crape draperies, tastefully embroidered in silver, fastened with silver cord and tassels; head-dress feathers and diamonds.

Viscountess Castlereagh.—A magnificent dress of apple-green crape, richly embroidered in silver, the whole spangled with silver, and trimmed with large silver zephyr and Vandyke fringe, the draperies tied up with rich tassels and cord; train to correspond; the body and sleeves fully trimmed with point; head-dress, a profusion of diamonds, and nine ostrich feathers.

Viscountess Allen.—A dress of green spider gauze, ornamented with wreaths of oak-leaves; head-dress, feathers and diamonds.

Lady Young.—A dress of white crape, richly embroidered with gold, gold cords and tassels; robe of white crape, ornamented with gold; the head-dress was of white feathers and diamonds.

Lady C. Harbold.—A Brussels dress, lined with topaz colour.

Lady Arden.—A white crape petticoat and drapery, very beautifully embroidered with silver, and interlined with pea-green sarsnet; body and train of pea green sarsnet, ornamented with silver and point lace.

Lady Moseley.—A splendid dress of white and silver, superbly ornamented and embroidered; the form of the draperies were in the Grecian style, loped up with a rich cord and tassels, train to correspond, richly ornamented with diamonds; head-dress, beautiful plumes of ostrich feathers, magnificent diamonds, and point lace.

Dowager Lady Bagot.—A superb dress of lilac, richly embroidered in silver.

Right Hon. Lady Mary Lennox.—A petticoat of lavender blue silk, ornamented with superb lace draperies; the train to correspond; head-dress diamonds and feathers.

Right Hon. Lady Elizabeth Spencer.—A most beautiful lavender silk train and petticoat, richly ornamented with draperies of superb point lace, looped up with beads and bead tassels; the bottom of the petticoat trimmed with point lace to correspond; head-dress of ostrich feathers and beads.

Lady M. Walpole.—A very beautiful dress; the petticoat elegantly embroidered with silver sprigs, and tastefully ornamented with rock lily; the drapery looped up with flowers; the body and train of white sarsnet, ornamented with silver and point lace.

Lady Lavington.—White dress, very richly embroidered with silver, in beautiful flowers; lilac train, elegantly embroidered, and ornamented with silver.

Lady Eleanor Butler.—Dress of pale pink crape, richly trimmed and wreaths and bunches of full blown roses and buds; head-dress, a profusion of diamonds and ostrich feathers.

Lady Perth.—A white and gold trimming, and rich gold tissue train.

Lady Crofton.—A purple gauze petticoat, ornamented with lilac flowers and cord; train to correspond.

Lady Hume.—A rich gold embroidered petticoat, on lavender blue sarsnet, train of the same.

Lady Banks.—An elegant blue and silver applique petticoat; train blue sarsnet.

Lady C. Duncombe.—A white and gold petticoat with draperies of purple crape; train to match.

Four Ladies Percy.—White satin petticoats, with blue crape draperies, and a rich applique border of blue and silver; the draperies tastefully drawn up with chains of massy silver; train blue crape; head-dress, a plume of blue and white feathers.

Lady E. Murray.—A pink crape petticoat, with rich net applique drapery; pink crape train.

Lady C. Wynn Belasyse.—A blue crape petticoat, elegantly ornamented with white fancy flowers; train blue crape.

Lady Bagot.—A most superb and elegant white dress, richly embroidered with silver in wreaths of oak, with a profusion of diamonds and feathers.

Lady Fluyder.—A white crape petticoat and draperies, with oak border in silver; train, lilac tissue; head-dress, feathers and diamonds.

Lady Imhoff.—A silver gauze petticoat, richly trimmed; lilac train; head-dress, feathers and diamonds.

Lady Metcalfe.—A pearl coloured sarsnet petticoat, painted with yellow roses, and apple blossoms, the draperies tied up with liburnum, and finished in a most tasteful manner, with steel beads and tassels; robe, head-dress, and feathers to correspond, with diamond bandeau and sprig, and feathers fastened with diamonds.

Lady Radstock.—A petticoat of lace, over a lavender silk; the train of the same colour, forming a drapery richly ornamented with beads.

Lady Bruce.—A petticoat of white crape, richly beaded, with a mantle or train of lilac sarsnet, trimmed with very rich point, suspended from the shoulders, falling in folds from the back, and fastened at the side in a festoon, with beads; head-dress, feathers and diamonds.

Lady Chambers.—A rich dress of white crape, embossed with gold and edged with rich borders, looped up with bunches of purple flowers.

Lady Sophia Lumley.—A dress of white crape, embroidered with silver, with bunches of pink frosted flowers.

Lady Rowley.—A white spider gauze dress, richly trimmed with silver, in rich Vandyke beads.

The Ladies Greville.—White and silver dresses, trimmed with pink flowers.

&n bsp; Hon. Lady J. Cavendish.—Petticoat of white crape, ornamented with fine lace drapery, fastened up with branches of white lilac, terminating on the left side with a Circassian sash, trimmed to correspond; train of white crape; head-dress feathers and pearls.

Lady Georgiana Morpeth.—Petticoat of white crape, tastefully ornamented with wreaths of ivy; draperies trimmed with blond; body and train to correspond; head- dress, feathers and ivy.

Dowager Lady Essex.—A gold and white taffety petticoat and train, with crape draperies, ornamented with gold fringe and green wreaths.

Lady Courtenay.—A rich white crape dress, beautifully ornamented with a shower of gold and wreaths of roses.

Lady Louisa Adderly.—A very rich dress of amber crape, with borders of embossed silver, à-la-Grec pattern. Head-dress, a bandeau of diamonds, and a single ostrich feather of straw colour.

Lady Birch.—A white sarsnet robe or petticoat, richly embroidered in silver. Head-dress to correspond.

Lady Mary Parker.—A dove-coloured petticoat uncommonly richly embroidered with silver in elegant chains across; the border serpentine pattern, a fall of embroidered points on the side; robe and head-dress to correspond.

Lady A. Clavering.—A white petticoat, trimmed round the bottom with china pearls, and yellow; the drapery of yellow crape, with very rich border, embroidered in china pearls, antique Mosaic pattern, with scarf of yellow sarsnet, profusely ornamented with pearl; the robe of yellow elegantly trimmed with pearls, and beautiful Brussels lace. The head ornamented with yellow and white feathers and diamonds.

Lady Francis Pratt.—A primrose sarsnet petticoat, covered with rich Brussels lace draperies, the bottom of the petticoat elegantly ornamented.

Lady Molyneux.—Body and train of lilac crape, ornamented with blond lace and bugles; white crape petticoat, with a rich embroidered border of bugles, and satin drapery of the same, drawn up with tassels, &c. &c.

Lady De Dunstanville.—United elegance and simplicity in her dress, which consisted of a white crape petticoat, ornamented with a beautiful border, composed of rich point lace, inter-mixed with blue crape, which produced an effect at once pleasing and elegant; head-dress, diamonds and feathers.

Lady Beauchamp.—A white crape petticoat elegantly ornamented with rich bandeaus of beads, and a chain of rich figured satin; her Ladyship’s head dress consisted of white feathers and diamonds most tastefully arranged.

Lady Wills.—We have seldom witnessed any thing more splendid that her Ladyship’s dress: she wore a petticoat of white Imperial net bordered with silver, the draperies were of lilac crape, ornamented with a most superb silver Vandyke, and fastened with large silver tassels, train of Imperial net, Vandyke border of silver to correspond with the train; head-dress, a profusion of beautiful diamonds.

Lady Gardner.—A petticoat of brown crape richly embroidered with gold, and festooned with large gold cord and tassels; draperies also of brown crape beautifully spangled with gold; her Ladyship’s petticoat looked very elegant.

Lady Rendlesham.—A petticoat of green crape richly spangled, and drapery to correspond, fastened with gold cords and tassels; her ladyship looked extremely well.

Lady Milnes.—Elegant white crape petticoat, ornamented with rich blond lace, and satin train of lilac sarsnet, ornamented with silver.

The Hon. Mrs. Drummond—White crape petticoat, tastefully embroidered with silver leaves; at the bottom of the petticoat a beautiful wreath border, embroidered with silver; the drapery of primrose crape, ornamented with silver and pointed lace.

The Hon. Mrs. Cornwall.—Petticoat of primrose crape, most beautifully and richly embroidered with silver draperies of the same in a mosaic pattern; ornamented with silver Parisian trimming, and confined tastefully with cord and tassels.

The Hon. Mrs. George Herbert.—A magnificent silver robe and coat, entirely covered with a shower of spangles, the draperies tied up with very large zephyr and cords, and finished with a superb silver fringe. Head-dress a beautiful pearl wreath, and seven ostrich feathers.

Hon. Mrs. Percy, presented on her marriage, was most appropriately dressed in an elegantly simple white crape dress, trimmed with daisies and liburnums.

Mrs. C. Long.—A yellow crape petticoat and drapery, with Mosaic border, superbly embroidered in silver; train yellow crape, with silver.

Mrs. Vernon Graham.—A superb petticoat of pale yellow crape, elegantly embroidered with a deep silver border, draperies of ditto richly grounded with spangles, and borders to correspond, finished with large silver rope and tassels; body and train of pale yellow, richly embroidered with silver, and finished in summer-point. Head-dress, yellow feathers and diamonds.

Mrs. Fisher.—A white and silver dress, with a lilac robe.

Mrs. Huskisson.—A yellow crape petticoat, with a painted Etruscan border; train to correspond.

The Hon. Miss Roche.—Lilac and silver.

Mrs. Gambier.—Blue crape petticoat, with elegant draperies of crape and beads, ornamented with cords and tassels of beads; blue crape train, beautifully trimmed to correspond.

Mrs. Champnets.—White crape body and train, trimmed with lace; petticoat of the same, drapery fastened up with large bunches of wall-flowers.

Mrs. A. Stanhope.—A dress of blue crape, richly embroidered in silver; head- dress, plume of feathers and diamonds.

Mrs. Cruchly.—A splendid dress of white, richly embroidered in silver, the draperies edged with wreaths of matted silver shells, looped up with chains of matted silver; head-dress, feathers and diamonds.

Mrs. Lawrell.—A dress of green satin and gauze, richly trimmed with chains and fringe of green bugles, ornamented with bunches of flowers.

Mrs. O’Brien.—A very handsome dress of white satin and crape, richly embroidered with silver spangles, the drapery fastened up with silver rope and arrows; head-dress, feathers and diamonds.

Hon. Miss S. Coleman.—Rich white satin petticoat, with bunches of fine ostrich feathers fringe round the bottom, white crape mantle, draperies edged with the same fringe, and fastened up with ropes and tassels of gold beads; train ornamented the same.

The Hon. Miss Townshend.—Yellow and silver dress, the draperies formed in antique borders, and ornamented with silver tassels; yellow crape train, embroidered with silver.
The Hon. Miss Wilmot appeared in a very elegant dress of white crape and satin.
The Hon. Miss M. Elphinstone.—A petticoat of white crape, trimmed round the bottom with Turkish gold, and draperies of Turkish crape, richly ornamented with gold cord and tassels; train of yellow crape.

The Hon. Miss Crofton and Miss A. Crofton.—White sarsnet petticoats, with rich lace draperies ornamented with beads and white roses; trains white crape trimmed with roses.

The Hon. Miss Brudenell.-Yellow crape petticoat and draperies, trimmed with broad fringe and tassels; yellow crape train.

The Hon. Miss Monson.—A blue sarsnet petticoat, with lace draperies; train to correspond; head-dress, feathers and silver ornaments.

The Hon. Miss Shore.—A dress of white crape, edged with sprigs of embossed silver, and ornamented with bunches of flowers.

The Hon. Miss Bassett.—A dress of pale green crape and silver, draperies edged with borders of embossed silver, in Vandyke; head-dress, feathers and diamonds.

The Hon. Miss Allen.—A handsome dress of pink spider gauze, ornamented with wreaths of frosted flowers.

The Hon. Misses Cust.—Lace dresses, lined with blue.

Three Hon. Misses Irby.—Dresses of prim-rose crape, embroidered with steel bugles, and ornamented with beads and bows of ribbon; robes of primrose crape, trimmed to correspond with the dress.

Hon. Miss Drummond.—A superb rich silver gauze petticoat, ornamented with wreaths of grapes and rich lace; train lavender blue crape.

Miss Garth—Yellow crape dress, tastefully ornamented with silver.

Mrs. Every.—A white crape petticoat, richly embroidered with wreaths of silver grapes and vine-leaves; an elegant drapery covered with bunches of grapes, in dead and bright foil, the effect of which was beautiful and novel; round the bottom a wreath of silver grapes; this drapery terminated with a sash embroidered to correspond, and fastened with superb cord and tassels; train elegantly trimmed with silver and pearls. The head-dress, plume of ostrich feathers, magnificent pearls, and lace point.

Mrs. Macleod.—A dress of white crape, trimmed with satin ribbon.


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