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Thomas Gray: Far From the Madding Crowd

With the new film adaptation of “Far from the Madding Crowd”, Thomas Hardy’s novel gets a new look and a new audience, but where did this Victorian author get his inspiration, and what does this have to do with Jane Austen?

First page of Dodsley's illustrated edition of Gray's Elegy with illustration by Richard Bentley
First page of Dodsley’s illustrated edition of Gray’s Elegy with illustration by Richard Bentley

Thomas Gray (26 December 1716 – 30 July 1771) was an English poet, letter-writer, classical scholar and professor at Cambridge University. He is widely known for his Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, published in 1751. This poem includes the line that inspired Hardy, “Far from the madding crowd’s ignoble strife, Their sober wishes never learned to stray;” Hardy, however, was far from the first to be impressed by the work, and many imitations of this poem both serious and parody were published during Jane’s lifetime alone. Jane Austen’s brother James, was often considered the “author” of the family and while at Oxford penned several (unpublished) poems “in the style of” Thomas Gray.

What was it about this poet that appealed to so many and gave rise to “probably still today the best-known and best-loved poem in English.”*

Portrait by John Giles Eccardt, 1747–1748
Portrait by John Giles Eccardt, 1747–1748

Thomas Gray was born in Cornhill, London. His father, Philip Gray, was a scrivener and his mother, Dorothy Antrobus, was a milliner He was the fifth of 12 children, and the only child of Philip and Dorothy Gray to survive infancy. He lived with his mother after she left his abusive and mentally unwell father. Gray’s mother once saved his life by opening one of his veins with her hands.

Gray’s mother paid for him to go to Eton College where two of his uncles worked: Robert and William Antrobus. Robert became Gray’s first teacher and helped inspire in Gray a love for botany and observational science. Gray’s other uncle, William, became his tutor. He recalled his schooldays as a time of great happiness, as is evident in his Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College. Gray was a delicate and scholarly boy who spent his time reading and avoiding athletics. He lived in his uncle’s household rather than at college. He made three close friends at Eton: Horace Walpole, son of the Prime Minister Robert Walpole; Thomas Ashton, and Richard West, son of another Richard West who was briefly Lord Chancellor of Ireland. The four prided themselves on their sense of style, sense of humour, and appreciation of beauty. They were called the “quadruple alliance.”

In 1734 Gray went up to Peterhouse, Cambridge. He found the curriculum dull. He wrote letters to friends listing all the things he disliked: the masters (“mad with Pride”) and the Fellows (“sleepy, drunken, dull, illiterate Things.”) Intended by his family for the law, he spent most of his time as an undergraduate reading classical and modern literature, and playing Vivaldi and Scarlatti on the harpsichord for relaxation.

In 1738 he accompanied his old school-friend Walpole on his Grand Tour of Europe, possibly at Walpole’s expense. The two fell out and parted in Tuscany, because Walpole wanted to attend fashionable parties and Gray wanted to visit all the antiquities. They were reconciled a few years later. It was Walpole who later helped publish Gray’s poetry. When Gray sent his most famous poem, “Elegy,” to Walpole, Walpole sent off the poem as a manuscript and it appeared in different magazines. Gray then published the poem himself and received the credit he was due.

Gray began seriously writing poems in 1742, mainly after his close friend Richard West died. He moved to Cambridge and began a self-imposed programme of literary study, becoming one of the most learned men of his time, though he claimed to be lazy by inclination. Gray was a brilliant bookworm, a quiet, abstracted, dreaming scholar, often afraid of the shadows of his own fame. He became a Fellow first of Peterhouse, and later of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Gray moved to Pembroke after the students at Peterhouse played a prank on him.

Gray spent most of his life as a scholar in Cambridge, and only later in his life did he begin traveling again. Although he was one of the least productive poets (his collected works published during his lifetime amount to fewer than 1,000 lines), he is regarded as the foremost English-language poet of the mid-18th century. In 1757, he was offered the post of Poet Laureate, which he refused. Gray was so self-critical and fearful of failure that he published only thirteen poems during his lifetime. He once wrote that he feared his collected works would be “mistaken for the works of a flea”. Walpole said that “He never wrote anything easily but things of Humour.” Gray came to be known as one of the “Graveyard poets” of the late 18th century, along with Oliver Goldsmith, William Cowper, and Christopher Smart. Gray perhaps knew these men, sharing ideas about death, mortality, and the finality and sublimity of death.

In 1762, the Regius chair of Modern History at Cambridge, a sinecure which carried a salary of £400, fell vacant after the death of Shallet Turner, and Gray’s friends lobbied the government unsuccessfully to secure the position for him. In the event, Gray lost out to Lawrence Brockett, but he secured the position in 1768 after Brockett’s death.

It is believed that Gray began writing his masterpiece, the Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, in the graveyard of St Giles parish church in Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, in 1742. After several years of leaving it unfinished, he completed it in 1750. The poem was a literary sensation when published by Robert Dodsley in February 1751 . Its reflective, calm and stoic tone was greatly admired, and it was pirated, imitated, quoted and translated into Latin and Greek; it is still one of the most popular and most frequently quoted poems in the English language. In 1759 during the Seven Years War, before the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, British General James Wolfe is said to have recited it to his officers, adding: “Gentlemen, I would rather have written that poem than take Quebec tomorrow”.

The Elegy was recognised immediately for its beauty and skill. It contains many phrases which have entered the common English lexicon, either on their own or as quoted in other works. These include:

  • Full many a flower is born to blush unseen”
  • “The Paths of Glory”
  • “Celestial fire”
  • “Some mute inglorious Milton”
  • “Far from the Madding Crowd”
  • “The unlettered muse”
  • “Kindred spirit”

“Elegy” contemplates such themes as death and afterlife. These themes foreshadowed the upcoming Gothic movement. It is suggested that perhaps Gray found inspiration for his poem by visiting the gravesite of his aunt, Mary Antrobus. The aunt was buried at the graveyard by the St. Giles’ churchyard, which he and his mother would visit. This is the same gravesite where Gray himself was later buried.

Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Gold Fishes, Illustrations by William Blake
Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Gold Fishes, Illustrations by William Blake

Gray also wrote light verse, including Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Gold Fishes, a mock elegy concerning Horace Walpole’s cat. After setting the scene with the couplet “What female heart can gold despise? What cat’s averse to fish?”, the poem moves to its multiple proverbial conclusion: “a fav’rite has no friend”, “[k]now one false step is ne’er retrieved” and “nor all that glisters, gold”. (Walpole later displayed the fatal china vase (the tub) on a pedestal at his house in Strawberry Hill.)

Gray’s surviving letters also show his sharp observation and playful sense of humour. He is well known for his phrase, “where ignorance is bliss, ’tis folly to be wise.” The phrase, from Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College, is possibly one of the most misconstrued phrases in English literature. Gray is not promoting ignorance, but is reflecting with nostalgia on a time when he was allowed to be ignorant, his youth (1742). It has been asserted that the Ode also abounds with images which find “a mirror in every mind”. This was stated by Samuel Johnson who said of the poem, “I rejoice to concur with the common reader … The Church-yard abounds with images which find a mirror in every mind, and with sentiments to which every bosom returns an echo” Indeed, Gray’s poem follows the style of the mid-century literary endeavor to write of “universal feelings.” Samuel Johnson also said of Gray that he spoke in “two languages”. He spoke in the language of “public” and “private” and according to Johnson, he should have spoken more in his private language as he did in his “Elegy” poem.

Gray considered his two Pindaric odes, The Progress of Poesy and The Bard, as his best works. Pindaric odes are to be written with fire and passion, unlike the calmer and more reflective Horatian odes such as Ode on a distant Prospect of Eton College. The Bard tells of a wild Welsh poet cursing the Norman king Edward I after his conquest of Wales and prophesying in detail the downfall of the House of Plantagenet. It is melodramatic, and ends with the bard hurling himself to his death from the top of a mountain.

The Hours by Maria Cosway, an illustration to Gray's poem Ode on the Spring, referring to the lines "Lo! where the rosy-bosomed Hours, Fair Venus' train, appear"
The Hours by Maria Cosway, an illustration to Gray’s poem Ode on the Spring, referring to the lines “Lo! where the rosy-bosomed Hours, Fair Venus’ train, appear”

When his duties allowed, Gray travelled widely throughout Britain to places such as Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and Scotland in search of picturesque landscapes and ancient monuments. These elements were not generally valued in the early 18th century, when the popular taste ran to classical styles in architecture and literature, and most people liked their scenery tame and well-tended. Some have seen Gray’s writings on this topic, and the Gothic details that appear in his Elegy and The Bard as the first foreshadowing of the Romantic movement that dominated the early 19th century, when William Wordsworth and the other Lake poets taught people to value the picturesque, the sublime, and the Gothic. Gray combined traditional forms and poetic diction with new topics and modes of expression, and may be considered as a classically focused precursor of the romantic revival.

Gray’s connection to the Romantic poets is vexed. In the prefaces to the 1800 and 1802 editions of Wordsworth’s and Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth singled out Gray’s, “Sonnet on the Death of Richard West,” to exemplify what he found most objectionable in poetry, declaring it was

“Gray, who was at the head of those who, by their reasonings, have attempted to widen the space of separation betwixt prose and metrical composition, and was more than any other man curiously elaborate in the structure of his own poetic diction.”

Gray wrote in a letter to West, that “the language of the age is never the language of poetry.”

"Gray's Monument" by UKgeofan at en.wikipedia. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray%27s_Monument.JPG#/media/File:Gray%27s_Monument.JPG
“Gray’s Monument” by UKgeofan at en.wikipedia. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons –

Gray died on 30 July 1771 in Cambridge, and was buried beside his mother in the churchyard of Stoke Poges, the setting for his famous Elegy. His grave can still be seen there.

 From Wikipedia.com

*Griffin, Dustin (2002), Patriotism and Poetry in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Cambridge University Press

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Jane Austen’s Brothers

Jane Austen’s brothers

“A Family of [Eight] children will always be called a fine family, where there are head and arms and legs enough for the number. ”
-Jane Austen

Jane Austen had six brothers– each with different talents, each contributing to her work in some way.

James (1765-1819)

Often thought by the family to be the “literary one” (see his poem on Sense and Sensibility), one of Austen’s brothers James followed in his father’s footsteps attending Oxford university at the age of 14 in 1779. After his ordination in 1787, he and his brother Henry edited a university magazine called The Loiterer, which ran for sixty issues. (Some issues of The Loiterer are available on-line.) After his marriage, he became his father’s curate at Deane, and after his retirement, He took on the duties of the Steventon as well.

James was not Jane Austen’s favorite brother, though she did call him “good and clever”. He seems to have had a bit of melancholy about him, uncharacteristic of the other Austens. Perhaps it was turning from the excitement of Oxford to the retired life of a country Vicar. Perhaps it was seeing his literary pretensions lived out through his sister or the wealth acceded to by his younger brother. It is true that his life was not untouched by sorrow, as well. His first wife died when their daughter, Anna (1793-1872), was but two years old. Anna was the first niece and a favorite of Jane Austen’s. She also had her father’s creative streak and worked on a a novel, Which is the Heroine, with the help of her aunt, until Jane Austen’s death, at which time Anna burned the work.

James married again and his second wife, Mary Lloyd, was not a favorite of Jane Austen’s, even though she was the sister of her dear friend, Martha Lloyd. James and Mary had two children, James Edward (1798-1874) and Caroline (1805-1880) who also solicited their aunt’s approval on their literary efforts. Caroline later wrote down her memories of her Aunt Jane and James Edward wrote the Memoir.

George (1766-1838)

Not much is known about young George Austen. Though he lived a relatively long life, characteristic of the Leigh side of the family, he spent the whole of it living with a farming family a few miles from Steventon. Some scholars believe he was mentally retarded, others that he was merely deaf, speculation rising from Jane Austen’s comment that she was fluent in “finger speaking”. Regardless of the cause, George was destined to play little part in the Austen’s brothers and family daily lives.

Edward Knight (1767-1852)

Edward was the only Austen brother not to have a profession. Early in the 1780’s he was adopted by Mr. Austen’s Patron, the rich but childless Thomas and Catherine Knight. Instead of going off to University, He was sent on the “grand tour” of continental Europe in 1786-1788, and eventually inherited their estate of Godmersham, Kent, and took the last name of “Knight”.

As part of his inheritance, Edward also acquired Steventon and an estate in Chawton. It was a cottage attached to the latter that he made available to his widowed mother and sisters, and here that millions of fans tour each year when they visit “Jane Austen’s Home”.

Edward had a large family and lively, cultured wife, Elizabeth. The Austen Aunts, Cassandra and Jane were frequent visitors to Godmersham during the early years, and when Edward’s wife died during her eleventh confinement the aunts became an integral part of the Godmersham and then Chawton, life.

Edward’s oldest daughter, Fanny, was but 16 when her mother died. She was another favorite niece who looked to her aunt for emotional as well as literary guidance. Unfortunately, Jane Austen died before she was able to see her find her own Mr. Darcy. Fanny eventually married a baronet; her son edited the first edition of Jane Austen’s letters.

Henry Thomas (1771-1850)

Henry was Jane Austen’s favorite brother and the sibling most like her in looks and temperament. He was witty and enthusiastic in whatever he did; the eternal optimist, though success did not always find him. He entered Oxford in 1788 in time to co edit the Loiterer with his brother James. He and James also shared a passion for the same woman, their widowed cousin, Eliza de Feuillide. She eventually chose Henry, 10 years her junior, and they were married in 1797.

Thanks in part to Eliza’s influence, Henry forsook his family’s expectations that he join James in the ministry and instead chose the militia. He later tried banking and lived the life of a London Business man until the bank failed, due to economic factors, in 1815. His wife, Eliza had died two years previously allowing him to return to his intended profession, eventually becoming a Calvinist-leaning minister. He served at different times in the curacy of Steventon and Chawton before becoming the Perpetual Curate at Bentley.

Henry was the sibling most influential in allowing Jane Austen to publish her works. Not only was his home available for her to stay in during her trips to London to work with her publisher, these visits also gave her an insight into society life that she would not otherwise have had, furnishing settings, events and characters for her novels to come. It was Henry who saw to the publication of Persuasion and Northanger Abbey after her death, and a Henry who wrote the brief, but loving biographical notice which prefaced these two novels and provided the world with their first glimpse into the life of this author.

Henry went on to marry again, this time Eleanor Jackson, a woman the family considered “an excellent wife”. He spent the rest of his days living the retired life of a country curate.

Francis William (1774–1865)

Francis Austen had, perhaps, the most glorious career of the Austen brothers, serving in the Navy from the age of 12 and eventually achieving Knighthood as Sir Francis Austen and rising to the position of Admiral of the Fleet. Considered by Admiral Nelson to be “an excellent young man”, he narrowly missed involvement in the battle of Trafalgar due to his temporary detachment as captain of a captured French Ship, the Canopus.

It is doubtless this connection which gave Jane Austen such an admiration for the men of the Royal Navy. A look at his career proclaims him not only the inspiration for the young Lieutenant William Price in Mansfield Park, but even more so for the unforgettable Captain Wentworth of Persuasion. Even the high points of their promotions stem from the same Battle, The Action off Santo Domingo.

According to some, Francis’ earlier promotions were due to the patronage of Warren Hastings, a friend of the family and supposed father of his cousin, Eliza de Feuillide. His ports of call ranged to the far corner of the British Empire at the time, spending time in the Far East from age 14 to 18 and later the Indies.

Francis and his wife, Mary had a cordial relationship with the Austen ladies, even including them for some time in their household in Southampton from 1805-1808, after the death of Rev. Austen. This arrangement, happy for all, as Frank was often at sea, also included their close friend, Martha Lloyd, sister to James Austen’s wife Mary. Unfortunately for Francis, His happy home was broken up upon the death of his wife in 1823 after the birth of their 11th child. In 1828 he remarried, completing the family circle by wedding Martha Lloyd (1765-1843). She gained fame in her own right, by collecting the recipes which later were compiled into The Jane Austen Household Book and more lately, The Jane Austen Cookbook.

Francis’ daughter, Catherine married John Hubback and went on to write the first completion of Jane Austen’s unfinished novel, The Watsons. Her son, John Henry Hubback co-authored Jane Austen’s Sailor Brothers with his Daughter, Edith Hubback, in 1906.

Charles John (1779-1852)

Charles was Jane’s darling little brother, clearly a favorite with both sisters as a boy. Though his career was nowhere near as distinguished as that of his brother, he also joined the Naval Academy as Midshipman at the age of 12 and rose to become a Rear-Admiral. Much to the regret of his family, he was stationed in the West Indies where he remained for seven years straight, returning at the end of that time with a wife and child.

It was Charles’ gift of Topaz Crosses to his sisters which inspired a similar scene in Mansfield Park. Charles Austen’s ship, Endymion captured many prizes during the war with France, leaving him a comfortable settlement. He died, at age 75, still on Active Duty, during a naval river-war in Burma.

Brian Southam, president of the Jane Austen Society, has written a wonderful book about these two daring brothers, entitled Jane Austen’s Sailor Brothers.

 


Laura Boyle creates custom made hats, bonnets, reticules and other Regency Accessories for Austentation a Regency Fashion History site and Boutique.

Portrait of the Austen Family by Jane Odiwe. Visite her website, Austen Effusions for more original Austen Art and Gift Items.

Portrait of Francis Austen reproduced by kind permission of the owner. No other reproudctions permissable.