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Advice to Young Women

James Fordyce and Co.

By tea-time… the dose had been enough, and Mr Bennet was glad to take his guest into the drawing-room again, and when tea was over, glad to invite him to read aloud to the ladies.

Mr Collins readily assented, and a book was produced; but on beholding it (for every thing announced it to be from a circulating library), he started back, and begging pardon, protested that he never read novels. —

Kitty stared at him, and Lydia exclaimed. —

Other books were produced, and after some deliberation he chose Fordyce’s Sermons.

Lydia gaped as he opened the volume, and before he had, with very monotonous solemnity, read three pages, she interrupted him…”

-Pride and Prejudice

Mr. Collins
During the Regency there were a wealth of books provided to instruct young girls in all the finer points of deportment and the arts of their sex. One such, Fordyce’s Sermons to Young Women” (1765) was chosen by Mr. Collins as proper instruction for the Bennet girls. Reading Dr. Fordyce’s views, one can see why Lydia was so disgusted. I wonder if Jane Austen would have approved of mary Wollstonecrafts views, though?

James Fordyce
On Being Weak and Passive:
In your sex manly exercises are never graceful a tone and figure of the masculine kind are always forbidding men of sensibility desire in every woman soft features a form not robust and demeanor delicate and gentle Nature appears to have formed the (mental) faculties of your sex, for the most part, with less vigour than those of ours, observing the same distinction here as in the more delicate frames of your bodies.

On Submission to Neglect:
I am astonished at the folly of many women who are still reproaching their husbands for leaving them alone, for preferring this or that company to theirs, when, to speak the truth, they have themselves in great measure to blame.

had you behaved to them with more respectful observance studying their humours, overlooking their mistakes, submitting to their opinions in matters indifferent, giving soft answers to hasty words, complaining as little as possible your house might be the abode of domestic bliss.

On Education:

As a small amount of knowledge entertains a woman, so from a woman a small expression of kindness delights, particularly if she has beauty.

On Being Pleasing to Men:

Never perhaps, does a fine woman strike more deeply than when composed into pious recollection she assumes without knowing it superior dignity and new graces the beauties of holiness seem to radiate about her.

Dr. John Gregory
Dr. John GregoryOn Being Ignorant:

Be ever cautious in displaying your good sense. It will be thought you assume superiority over the rest of the company. But if you have any learning, keep it a profound secret especially from the men, who generally look with a jealous and malignant eye on a woman of great parts and a cultivated understanding.

On Being Pleasing to Men:

When a girl ceases to blush, to has lost the most powerful charm of beauty.

The men will complain of your reserve. They will assure you that a franker behaviour would make you more amiable. But, trust me, they are not sincere when they tell you so. I acknowledge that on some occasions it might render you more agreeable as companions, but it would make you less amiable as women; an important distinction, which many of your sex are unaware of.

On Reserve and Modesty:

One of the chief beauties in a female character is that modest reserve, that reitiring delicacy, which avoids the public eye.

On Concealing One’s Love:
Violent love cannot subsist, at least cannot be expressed, for any time together, on both sides, otherwise the certain consequence however concealed, is satiety and disgust.

Mary Wollstonecraft on Conduct Book Advice:
Mary WollstoncraftEverything that women see or hear serves to fix impressions, call forth emotions and associate ideas that give a sexual character to the mind. False notions of beauty and delicacy stop the growth of their limbs and produce a sickly soreness rather than a delicacy women perceive that it is only through their address to excite emotions in men, that pleasure and power are to be obtained. Besides, the books professionally written for their instruction, which make their first impression on their minds, all inculcate the same opinions.

Pleasure is the business of a woman’s life, according to the present modification of society; and while it continues to be so, little can be expected from such weak things Regard for reputation, independent of it being on of the natural rewards of virtue took it’s rise from the grand source of female depravity, the impossibility of regaining respectibility from a return to virtue, though men preserve theirs during the indulgence of vice.

I am persuaded that in the pursuit of knowledge women would never be insulted by sensible men, and rarely by men of any description, if they did not by mock modesty remind them that they were women Men are not always men in the company of women, nore would women always remember that they are women, if they were allowed to acquire more understanding.

Mary Wollstonecraft sees true modesty as ‘purity of mind’, rather than regulation of behaviour, and that it is acchieved by cultivating the understanding.

Reprinted with permission, from The Jane Austen Society of Australia’s Newsletter.

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Modesty and the Regency Miss

Martha and I dined yesterday at Deane to meet the Powletts and Tom Chute, which we did not fail to do. Mrs. Powlett was at once expensively and nakedly dressed; we have had the satisfaction of estimating her lace and her muslins; and she said too little to afford us much other amusement.
Jane Austen to Cassandra
Steventon, January 8, 1801

Some authors (not to mention book covers) would have you believe that to dress in Regency style was to be overly immodest or even exposed. I beg to differ.

The favorite fabric for a Regency gown was undeniably light-weight, being muslin-a very thin, soft cotton. Yet the Regency lady was no more exposed than she wanted to be. An amusing scene from the 1996 BBC Pride and Prejudice (Starring Jennifer Ehle and Colin Firth) occurs when Lydia has rushed into the hallway wearing only a chemise. The strait-laced Mr. Collins is forced to pass her on his way to the staircase and is, I believe, clearly scandalized. The scene is quite funny, and Lydia herself cannot stop laughing. But what did he find so shocking?

Was it the amount of cleavage in plain sight? Hardly, for a perfectly respectable evening dress could reveal as much. It was more likely the idea of having seen a young lady in her “underclothing” which unsettled poor Mr. Collins.

Half a century earlier, such a sight would likely not have brought the slightest blush to even the most prudish. During the 18th century, women were required to wear layers and layers of clothing consisting largely of underclothes: chemises, stockings, stays (corsets), hoops, panniers, and often many layers of petticoats. By the time of the Regency, costume had undergone a downright shocking reversal causing the heavy layers of underclothing to be discarded.

The change began in France, which in turn was taking its ideas from classical Greek and Roman styles of antiquity. There, women’s underclothing was in danger of becoming downright extinct–among the upper class, in particular. When this “Empire Style” crossed the channel into England, however, it became less risque, thanks to the more modest English, but the ideal of a long, straight dress, revealing the human figure beneath had still to be maintained. In short, all those petticoats from the previous century had to go. The same went for the long corsets, the hoops, the panniers.

What remained was a simple chemise, often accompanied by a short corset which served to raise and support the bust (a precursor to the modern bra), which in turn might be accompanied by a petticoat. This is where personal taste came into play. The long, straight line of the figure was the fashionable ideal and no bulky under-garments could be allowed to get in the way, but ladies could, and did, wear underclothing and the petticoat never disappeared completely from the female wardrobe. The Regency is famous in caricature for the lack of female undergarments, but this propensity of exhibitionism was far less common than the cartoonists’ of the day would have you think.

Most women, like Jane Austen herself, wore sufficient undergarments, and, indeed, dressed quite modestly. The Empire day-dress used sundry manner of textile trickery to conceal the bust (such as frills, lace, ruches, ruffs, and even light spencers) so that day garments were in particular extremely modest. The few who made do without the short corset and petticoat were probably given the most attention by newspapermen simply because they were, well, newspaperMEN!

Evening dress was more revealing, requiring a square, low bodice, but women were free to use shawls, scarves, feathers, veils and what-not (all of which came in an amazing array of sizes and styles, especially as the Regency wore on), so that they could easily appear more modestly if they so desired. Even to modern eyes, however, bodices from the day are revealing; but again this was mostly the case for evening wear, and more formal occasions. The scantily clad lady sitting in the library reading just wasn’t the way it went, no matter how romance novel designers choose to portray it!

There have always been people of poor taste, then no less than now. It was they who used the fashion “to an extreme”, who did not wear adequate underclothing, and who, unfortunately, represent the era to some minds. Even drawers were worn by women as early as 1804, (though admittedly not yet popular. They were taken from men’s clothing and considered coarse and crude). Princess Charlotte was discovered to use them, however, which (despite shocking the older set), did much to popularize them with the masses, who adored her.

Given a choice between a diaphanous Regency gown complete with a chemise and corset, and today’s style of clothing for junior’s, I would wager (if I wagered, though I do not!) that the Regency style would be more modest.

Explore our popular costume section at our online giftshop for dresses, spencers and more!

Linore Rose Burkard is the author of Before the Season Ends, an Inspirational Regency Romance that readers love. She spent a great deal of time researching the period while writing her book. Coming soon from Harvest House Publishers: a new edition of Before the Season Ends, (Dec. 2008) followed by its sequel, The House in Grosvenor Square.( April, 2009) Visit her website to read more great articles, or to subscribe to her free monthly eZine, “U pon My Word! Facts, Fashion and Figures of the Regency.”