Posted on

Marie Antoine (Antonin) Carême

Antnin Careme, one of the first "celebrity" chefs.
Antonin Carême, one of the first “celebrity” chefs.

Marie Antoine (Antonin) Carême (8 June 1784 – 12 January 1833) was an early practitioner and exponent of the elaborate style of cooking known as grande cuisine, the “high art” of French cooking: a grandiose style of cookery favoured by both international royalty and by the newly rich of Paris. Carême is often considered as one of the first internationally renowned celebrity chefs.

Abandoned by his parents in Paris in 1794 at the height of the French Revolution, he worked as a kitchen boy at a cheap Parisian chophouse in exchange for room and board. In 1798, he was formally apprenticed to Sylvain Bailly, a famous pâtissier with a shop near the Palais-Royal. The post-revolutionary Palais Royal was a high profile, fashionable neighborhood filled with vibrant life and bustling crowds. Bailly recognized his talent and ambition. By the time he was prepared to leave Bailly, he could stipulate that he should be free to leave his new employer when a better offer came along. He opened his shop, the Pâtisserie de la rue de la Paix, which he maintained until 1813.

A few of Careme's complicated designs.
A few of Careme’s complicated designs.

Carême gained fame in Paris for his pièces montées, elaborate constructions used as centerpieces, which Bailly displayed in the pâtisserie window. He made these confections, which were sometimes several feet high, entirely out of foodstuffs such as sugar, marzipan, and pastry. He modeled them on temples, pyramids, and ancient ruins, taking ideas from architectural history books that he studied at the nearby Bibliothèque Nationale, thanks to the enlightened attitude of his first employer Bailly. He is credited with the inventions of gros nougats and grosses meringues, croquantes, made of almonds and honey, and solilemmes.

He did freelance work creating pieces principally for the French diplomat and gourmand Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, but also other members of Parisian high society, including Napoleon. While working on his confections at many private kitchens, he quickly extended his culinary skills to main courses.

French bishop, politician and diplomat, Talleyrand in an 1808 portrait by François Gérard.
French bishop, politician and diplomat, Talleyrand in an 1808 portrait by François Gérard.

Napoleon was famously indifferent to food, but he understood the importance of social relations in the world of diplomacy. In 1804, he gave money to Talleyrand to purchase Château de Valençay, a large estate outside Paris. The château was intended to act as a kind of diplomatic gathering place. When Talleyrand moved there, he took Carême with him.

Carême was sent a test by Talleyrand: to create a whole year’s worth of menus, without repetition, and using only seasonal produce. Carême passed the test and completed his training in Talleyrand’s kitchens. After the fall of Napoléon, Carême went to London for a time and served as chef de cuisine to the Prince Regent, later George IV. Returning to the continent he followed the invitation of Tsar Alexander I to come to St. Petersburg, where he lived so briefly he never prepared a meal for the Tsar before returning to Paris, where he was chef to banker James Mayer Rothschild.

He died in his Paris house on the Rue Neuve Saint Roche at the age of 48, due perhaps to many years inhaling the toxic fumes of the charcoal on which he cooked. He is remembered as the founder of the haute cuisine concept and is interred in the Montmartre cemetery in Paris.

In his first major position, Carême worked as chef de cuisine to Talleyrand who actively encouraged Carême in the development of a new refined food style using herbs and fresh vegetable, simplified sauces with few ingredients. Talleyrand became a famous host during the Congress of Vienna—when the congress disbanded, not only the map of Europe but also the culinary tastes of its upper classes were thoroughly revised.

Carême’s impact on culinary matters ranged from trivial to theoretical. He is credited with creating the standard chef’s hat, the toque; he designed new sauces and dishes, he published a classification of all sauces into groups, based on four mother sauces. He is also frequently credited with replacing the practice of service à la française (serving all dishes at once) with service à la russe (serving each dish in the order printed on the menu) after he returned from service in the Russian court, but others say he was a diehard supporter of service à la française.

Costumes of cooks from different eras, from 'Le Maitre d'Hotel francais' by Marie Antoine Careme, published in 1822 (engraving) by Marie Antoine Careme
‘Costumes of cooks from different eras’, from ‘Le Maitre d’Hotel francais’ by Marie Antoine Careme, published in 1822.

 

Carême wrote several books on cookery, above all the encyclopedic L’Art de la Cuisine Française (5 vols, 1833–34, of which he had completed three before his death), which included, aside from hundreds of recipes, plans for menus and opulent table settings, a history of French cookery, and instructions for organizing kitchens.

  • Le Pâtissier royal parisien, ou Traité élémentaire et pratique de la pâtisserie moderne, suivi d’observations utiles au progrès de cet art, et d’une revue critique des grands bals de 18
  • Le Maître d’hôtel français, ou Parallèle de la cuisine ancienne et moderne, considéré sous rapport de l’ordonnance des menus selon les quatre saisons. (Paris, 2 vols. 1822)
  • Projets d’architecture pour l’embellissement de Sainte Petersburg. (Paris, 1821)
  • Projets d’architecture pour l’embellissement de Paris. (Paris, 1826)
  • Le Pâtissier pittoresque, précédé d’un traité des cinq orders d’architecture (Paris, 1828; 4th edition, Paris, 1842)
  • Le Cuisinier parisien, Deuxième édition, revue, corrigée et augmentée. (Paris, 1828)
  • L’Art de la cuisine française au dix-neuvième siècle. Traité élémentaire et pratique. (Volumes 1-5. [Work completed after Carême’s death by Armand Plumerey.] Paris, 1833–1847)
  • The royal Parisian pastrycook and confectioner ([From the original of Carême, edited by John Porter] London, 1834)
  • French Cookery, Comprising l’Art de la cuisine française; Le Pâtissier royal; Le Cuisinier parisien… ( [translated by William Hall] London, 1836)

Information and illustrations from Wikipedia.com

Posted on

Madame Marie Tussaud

Anna Maria “Marie” Tussaud (née Grosholtz; 1 December 1761 – 16 April 1850) was a French born artist of German descent, who became known for her wax sculptures and Madame Tussauds, the wax museum that she founded in London.

Madame Tussaud's self portait in wax, aged 42.
Madame Tussaud “at the age of 42, when she left France for Great Britain”. Portrait study (1921) by John Theodore Tussaud.

Marie Tussaud was born 1 December 1761 in Strasbourg, France. Her father, Joseph Grosholtz, was killed in the Seven Years’ War just two months before Marie was born. Her mother, Anne-Marie Walder, took her to Bern where she worked as a housekeeper for Dr. Philippe Curtius (1741–1794), a physician and wax sculptor who Marie would call her uncle. Curtius initially used his talent for wax modeling to illustrate anatomy. Later, he did portraits.

The oldest display is that of "Sleeping Beauty", Madame DuBarry.
The oldest waxwork on display is that of the “Sleeping Beauty”, Madame Du Barry.

Curtius moved to Paris in 1765 to establish a cabinet de portraits en cire (wax portrait exhibition). In that year, he made a waxwork of Louis XV’s last mistress, Madame du Barry, a cast that is the oldest work currently on display. A year later, Tussaud and her mother joined Curtius in Paris. The first exhibition of Curtius’ waxworks was shown in 1770 and attracted a large crowd. In 1776, the exhibition was moved to the Palais Royal and, in 1782, Curtius opened a second exhibit, the Caverne des Grands Voleurs, a precursor to the later chamber of horrors, on Boulevard du Temple.

The wax statue of Voltaire on display at Madame Tussauds, London.
The wax statue of Voltaire on display at Madame Tussauds, London.

It was Curtius who taught Tussaud the art of wax modeling. She showed talent for the technique and began working for him as an artist. In 1777, she created her first wax figure, that of Voltaire. From 1780 until the Revolution in 1789, Tussaud created many of her most famous portraits of celebrities such as Voltaire and Benjamin Franklin. At the same time, she remained on good terms with the French royal family. She claimed in later years to have been employed to teach “votive” making to Élisabeth the sister of Louis XVI. Elisabeth, it is said, enjoyed making wax dolls to represent various religious figures.

In her memoirs (a some what unreliable source), Tussaud claimed that it was in this capacity that she was frequently privy to private conversations between the princess and her brother and members of his court. She also claimed that members of the royal family were so pleased with her work that she was invited to live at Versailles.

In Paris, Tussaud became involved in the French Revolution and met many of its important figures including Napoleon Bonaparte and Robespierre.

On 12 July 1789, wax heads of Jacques Necker and the duc d’Orléans made by Curtius were carried in a protest march two days before the attack on the Bastille.

The French Royal family, as modeled by Madame Tussaud.
The French Royal family, as modeled by Madame Tussaud.

Tussaud was arrested during the Reign of Terror together with Joséphine de Beauharnais; her head was shaved in preparation for execution by guillotine. However, thanks to Collot d’Herbois’ support for Curtius and his household, she was released. Tussaud was then employed to make death masks of the victims of the time, including some of the Revolution’s most infamous dead such as Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, Marat, and Robespierre. Her death masks were held up as revolutionary flags and paraded through the streets of Paris. Soon, Tussaud was searching through sanitaries collecting the most illustrious heads she could find.

When Curtius died in 1794, he left his collection of wax works to Tussaud. In 1795, she married François Tussaud. The couple had two children, Joseph and François.

In 1802, after the Treaty of Amiens, Tussaud went to London with her son Joseph, then four years old, to present her collection of portraits having accepted an invitation from Paul Philidor, a magic lantern and phantasmagoria pioneer, to exhibit her work alongside his show at the Lyceum Theatre, London. She did not fare particularly well financially, with Philidor taking half of her profits.

When Marie Tussaud moved to London in 1802 to set up her own exhibition at the Lyceum Theatre she brought some of these figures with her and set them up in a separate gallery; and when later she toured her exhibits around the country she maintained this division in her exhibition using a ‘Separate Room’ to display them in. The exhibits at this time included the heads of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, as well as Madame du Barry, Marat, Robespierre, Hébert, Carrier and Fouquier-Tinville in addition to models of a guillotine and the Bastille and the Egyptian mummy from Curtuis’ collection.

An advertisement for Madame Tussaud's exhibition.
An advertisement for Madame Tussaud’s exhibition.

As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, Tussaud was unable to return to France so she traveled with her collection throughout Great Britain and Ireland. In 1822, probably during Chateaubriand’s ambassadorship, her other son, François, joined her. In 1835, she established her first permanent exhibition in Baker Street, on the upper floor of the “Baker Street Bazaar”. Here the ‘Separate Room’ became the ‘Chamber of Horrors’. At this time her exhibits included Colonel Despard, Arthur Thistlewood, William Corder and Burke and Hare, in addition to those listed above. The name ‘Chamber of Horrors’ is often credited to a contributor to Punch in 1845, but Marie Tussaud appears to have originated it herself, using it in advertising as early as 1843. Visitors were charged an extra sixpence to enter the ‘Separate Room’.

 

hamber-of-Horrors-1849-by-Richard-Doyle-1824–1883-httpwww.gutenberg.orgfiles3774537745-h37745-h.htm.-Licensed-under-PD-US-via-Wikipedia-httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiFileChamber_of_Horrors_1849.jpgmediavie
Chamber of Horrors, 1849 by Richard Doyle 1824–1883)

In 1838, she wrote her memoirs. In 1842, she made a self-portrait which is now on display at the entrance of her museum. Some of the sculptures done by Tussaud herself still exist.

Madame Tussaud, herself, greets visitors at her epoymous museum.
Madame Tussauds own self portrait greets visitors at her eponymous museum.

She died in her sleep in London on 16 April 1850 at the age of 88. There is a memorial tablet to Madame Marie Tussaud on the right side of the nave of St. Mary’s Roman Catholic Church, Cadogan Street, London.

tussaud
Madame Tussaud’s sons, from “The Romance of Madame Tussauds“, written by her great-grandson, John Theodore Tussaud.

 

Upon Marie Tussaud’s retirement, her son François (or Francis) became chief artist for the Exhibition. He was succeeded in turn by his son Joseph, who was succeeded by his son John Theodore Tussaud.

Madame Tussauds, London
Madame Tussauds, London

Madame Tussaud’s wax museum has now grown to become one of the major tourist attractions in London, and has expanded with branches in Amsterdam, Bangkok, Sydney, Madame Tussauds Hong Kong (Victoria Peak), Las Vegas, Shanghai, Berlin, Washington D.C., New York City, and Hollywood. The current owner is Merlin Entertainments Group,[3] a company owned by Blackstone Group.

 

Information and photos from Wikipedia.com

Posted on

Eugène François Vidocq: Misérables Inspiration

Eugène François Vidocq

Eugène François Vidocq

“The book the reader has now before his eyes – from one end to the other; in its whole and in its details, whatever the omissions, the exceptions, or the faults – is the march from evil to good, from injustice to justice, from the false to the true, from night to day, from appetite to conscience, from rottenness to life, from brutality to duty, from Hell to Heaven, from nothingness to God. Starting point: matter; goal: the soul. Hydra at the beginning, angel at the end.”
-Les Misérables

No list of the greatest novels ever written would be complete without Pride and Prejudice, if not all of Jane Austen’s novels. However, one other novel that often joins Jane at the top of such lists, is Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables. Set in France during the tumultuous years 1813-1840, the novel examines the complex themes of sin, grace and redemption.

It will, no doubt, come as a surprise to many that the two main characters of this novel, Jean Valjean (a convicted thief) and Inspector Javert (the officer dedicated to making him pay for his crimes) were inspired by the same person. Eugène François Vidocq, a direct contemporary of Jane Austen, was an ex-convict who became a successful businessman widely noted for his social engagement and philanthropy.  In 1828, Vidocq, already pardoned, saved one of the workers in his paper factory by lifting a heavy cart on his shoulders as Valjean does in the novel. Vidcoq, a personal friend of Victor Hugo, eventually became the head of the Sûreté Nationale, the first recorded private detective, and possibly even the inspiration for Sherlock Holmes.

Eugène François VidocqEugène François Vidocq ( July 24, 1775 – May 11, 1857) was a French criminal and criminalist whose life story inspired several writers, including Victor Hugo and Honoré de Balzac. A former crook who subsequently became the founder and first director of the crime-detection Sûreté Nationale as well as the head of the first known private detective agency, Vidocq is considered to be the father of modern criminology  and of the French police department.He is also regarded as the first private detective.
Continue reading Eugène François Vidocq: Misérables Inspiration

Posted on

The Elephant of the Bastille

“Mr. Worthing. I must confess that I feel somewhat bewildered by what you have just told me. To be born, or at any rate bred in a handbag, whether it have handles or not, seems to me to display a contempt for the ordinary decencies of family life which reminds one of the worst excesses of the French revolution, and I presume you know what that unfortunate movement led to…”
Lady Bracknell, The Importance of Being Earnest
by Oscar Wilde

Elephant of the Bastille

“Mr. Worthing. I must confess that I feel somewhat bewildered by what you have just told me. To be born, or at any rate bred in a handbag, whether it have handles or not, seems to me to display a contempt for the ordinary decencies of family life which reminds one of the worst excesses of the French revolution, and I presume you know what that unfortunate movement led to…”
Lady Bracknell, The Importance of Being Earnest
by Oscar Wilde

The Elephant of the Bastille was a monument in Paris which existed between 1813 and 1846. Originally conceived in 1808 by Napoleon, the colossal statue was intended to be created out of bronze and placed in the Place de la Bastille, but only a plaster full-scale model was built. At 24 m (78 ft) in height the model itself became a recognisable construction and was immortalised by Victor Hugo in his novel Les Misérables (1862) in which it is used as a shelter by the street urchin Gavroche. It was built at the site of the Bastille and although part of the original construction remains, the elephant itself was replaced a few years after the construction of the July Column (1835-40) on the same spot.

 Elephant of the Bastille

When the Bastille fell in July 1789, there was some debate as to what should replace it, or indeed if it should remain as a monument to the past. Pierre-François Palloy secured the contract to demolish the building, with the dimension stones being reused for the construction of the Pont de la Concorde and other parts sold by Palloy as souvenirs. Most of the building was removed over the subsequent months by up to 1,000 workers. In 1792 the area was turned into the Place de la Bastille with only traces of the fortress that had once dominated the area remaining.

 Elephant of the Bastille
Prise de la Bastille, by Jean-Pierre-Louis-Laurent Houel

Continue reading The Elephant of the Bastille

Posted on

Cutting Edge Fashion

Fashion magazines like La Belle Assemblee and Ackerman’s Repository were created in the late 18th century. They

quickly became popular with the socially elite and burgeoning middle class, alike. Each month, readers could look forward to a

glimpse of what fashionable women in London and Paris were wearing, short stories, biographies and a run down of popular

colours to wear. Some magazines even included hand coloured plates making the fashions they described come alive on the page.

As can be seen in this surviving scrap of childhood ephemera, the plates were just as fun, once fashion had marched on.

This “personalized” fashion plate was created by Jane Austen’s niece, Fanny Knight, and the manner of creating it was quite

simple.

Find a prettily coloured fashion plate, cut out the main “fabric” sections of the gowns and then fix behind the newly created

holes brightly coloured silk or other fabric. Presto! A frame worthy project in just a few minutes.

To create your own work of art, you will need:

  • A colour printer
  • Heavy weight Cardstock
  • A cutting board or sheet of cardboard
  • A sharp craft knife, such as an X-acto or box cutter
  • Bits and scraps of bright, light weight fabric
  • Tape or Glue
  • Frame and Mat cut to size, if desired.
  1. Save one of these fashion plates to your hard drive by right clicking on the picture and choosing “save as”.
  2. Print the picture in your desired size on the cardstock. You may wish to resize in on your computer beforeprinting.
  3. Protect the surface you will be working on with the cutting board or cardboard. Now, decide which sections of gownyou would like to replace with fabric.
  4. Carfully cut out the sections to be replaced.
  5. Place the fabric behind the open spaces. YOu may wish to scrunch it a bit to give fullness.
  6. Fix the fabric in place by taping or gluing the edges to the back of your cardstock.
  7. Mount the picture on cardboard or place in a mat and frame for easy display.

If you enjoyed this, have a look at our fashion books at our online giftshop!

Laura Boyle is a long time fan of Jane Austen’s work and an avid reader. She runs Austentation.com, specializing in custom made Regency hats, bonnets and

accessories.

 

Posted on

Lemonade

The first lemonades were created in the 1540s in Paris. Lemonade, in its uncarbonated form, is among the oldest of commercial soft drinks, dating at least back to the 17th century. In Paris in 1676, a business called the Compagnie de Limonadiers was formed and granted monopoly rights to sell lemonade, which their vendors dispensed in cups from tanks carried upon their backs. The French term limonade has since come to mean “soft drink” in many languages.

For centuries, the drink of Summertime, this recipe comes from The House Servant’s directory, originally published in 1827 by Robert Roberts. The directions are easily followed today to create and authentic and refreshing drink.

Excellent Lemonade
Take one gallon of water, put to it the juice of ten good lemons, and the zeasts of six of them likewise, then add to this one pound of sugar, and mix it well together, strain it through a fine strainer, and put it in ice to cool; this will be a most delicious and fine lemonade.

Classic Lemonade for Six
1 cup sugar
6 cups water (divided)
1 cup lemon juice (or the juice from 6 lemons)
Lemon slices for garnish

Make a “simple syrup” by heating sugar and 1 cup of the water in a small saucepan until the sugar is completely dissolved. Remove from heat.

Stir together the remaining water, lemon juice and simple syrup. Make adjustments to taste. Chill for an hour, or add ice to cool.

Serves 6.

Historical information from Wikipedia

Enjoyed this article? Browse our giftshop at janeaustengiftshop.co.uk for Regency recipe books!