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The Georgian Breakfast

The elegance of the breakfast set forced itself on Catherine’s notice when they were seated at table
Northanger Abbey

Breakfast, as we know it, was developed during the Regency. Prior to this a late morning meal of tea and coffee, rolls, breads, meats, eggs, etc. was provided around 10 a.m. Upon a visit to Stoneleigh Abbey, Mrs Austen, Jane’s mother, was known to have remarked on the quantity of food at breakfast, listing, “Chocolate Coffee and Tea, Plumb Cake, Pound Cake, Hot Rolls, Cold Rolls, Bread and Butter, and dry toast for me”.

The lateness of the breakfast hour allowed people to run many errands which we would normally consider suitable for later in the day such as a visit to the park or library. While “morning calls” were actually made to friends in the afternoon, other events did take place. Until the late 1880’s, weddings were required by law, to be morning affairs. This paved the way for Wedding Breakfasts- the ancestor to today’s wedding receptions. Breakfast and Wedding cake were served and the party broke up in the early afternoon allowing the couple time to travel to their new home or honeymoon destination.

As the working/Middle class became a greater part of society, mealtimes changed and an early meal around 8 or 9 in the morning was needed to start tradesmen and professionals on their way. This meal would have been eaten in the drawing room or dining room and would have revolved around cakes and breads such as Brioche, French bread, toast, plum cake and honey cake. Tea and chocolate were popular drinks to accompany this meal. In the Austen household, it was Jane’s job to prepare breakfast for the family around 9 every morning. The Austen’s breakfast consisted of pound cake, toast, tea and occassionally cocoa.

Jane often used the hour before breakfast for her own personal time. Her neice, Anna Lefroy describes the routine: “Aunt Jane began her day with music – for which I conclude she had a natural taste; as she thus kept it up – ‘tho she had no one to teach; was never induced (as I have heard) to play in company; and none of her family cared much for it. I suppose that she might not trouble them, she chose her practising time before breakfast – when she could have the room to herself – She practised regularly every morning – She played very pretty tunes, I thought – and I liked to stand by her and listen to them; but the music (for I knew the books well in after years) would now be thought disgracefully easy – Much that she played from was manuscript, copied out by herself – and so neatly and correctly, that it was as easy to read as print.”

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An Easy but Certain Cure for Consumption

Tuberculosis, or ‘consumption’ as it was commonly known, caused the most widespread public concern in the 19th and early 20th centuries as an endemic disease of the urban poor. In 1815, one in four deaths in England was of consumption; by 1918 one in six deaths in France were still caused by TB. After the establishment in the 1880s that the disease was contagious, TB was made a notifiable disease in Britain; there were campaigns to stop spitting in public places, and the infected poor were “encouraged” to enter sanatoria that resembled prisons; the sanatoria for the middle and upper classes offered excellent care and constant medical attention. Whatever the purported benefits of the fresh air and labor in the sanatoria, even under the best conditions, 50% of those who entered were dead within five years.*
Martha Lloyd’s recipe for a “Consumption Cure” no doubt refers to the more common defintion of consumption– a wasting disease and in particular a lingering chest cough. The following instructions are for a strong cough syrup, not so dissimilar from what is available today in pharmacies around the world.

An Easy but Certain Cure for Consumption
Two ounces of the express juice of Hore-hound, mix’d with a pint of fawn’s milk and sweetened with honey.
From Martha Lloyd’s Household Book

White Horehound is a perennial herbaceous plant, found all over Europe and indigenous to Great Britain. Like many other plants of the Labiate family, it flourishes in waste places and by roadsides, particularly in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, where it is also cultivated in the corners of cottage gardens for making tea and candy for use in coughs and colds. It is also brewed and made into horehound ale, an appetizing and healthful beverage, much drunk in Norfolk and other country districts.

The plant is bushy, producing numerous annual, quadrangular and branching stems, a foot or more in height, on which the whitish flowers are borne in crowded, axillary, woolly whorls. The leaves are much wrinkled, opposite, petiolate, about 1 inch long, covered with white, felted hairs, which give them a woolly appearance. They have a curious, musky smell, which is diminished by drying and lost on keeping. Horehound flowers from June to September.

The flavor can be described best perhaps, as an almost berry flavored rootbeer. To some it might be an acquired taste. Horehound flavored “Stick Candy”, as well as candy “drops” can be found and purchased at various locations.

White Horehound has long been noted for its efficacy in lung troubles and coughs. John Gerard says of this plant:

‘Syrup made of the greene fresh leaves and sugar is a most singular remedie against the cough and wheezing of the lungs . . . and doth wonderfully and above credit ease such as have been long sicke of any consumption of the lungs, as hath beene often proved by the learned physitions of our London College.’

And Nicholas Culpeper said:

‘It helpeth to expectorate tough phlegm from the chest, being taken with the roots of Irris or Orris…. There is a syrup made of this plant which I would recommend as an excellent help to evacuate tough phlegm and cold rheum from the lungs of aged persons, especially those who are asthmatic and short winded.’

Preparations of horehound are still largely used as expectorants and tonics. It may, indeed, be considered one of the most popular pectoral remedies, being given with benefit for chronic cough, asthma, and some cases of consumption.

Horehound is sometimes combined with hyssop, rue, liquorice root and marshmallow root, 1/2 oz. of each boiled in 2 pints of water, to 1 1/2 pint, strained and given in 1/2 teacupful doses, every two to three hours.

For children’s coughs and croup, it is given to advantage in the form of syrup, and is a most useful medicine for children, not only for the complaints mentioned, but as a tonic and a corrective of the stomach. It has quite a pleasant taste.

Taken in large doses, it acts as a gentle purgative. The powdered leaves have also been employed as a vermifuge and the green leaves, bruised and boiled in lard, are made into an ointment which is good for wounds.

For ordinary cold, a simple infusion of horehound (horehound tea) is generally sufficient in itself. The tea may be made by pouring boiling water on the fresh or dried leaves, 1 OZ. of the herb to the pint. A wineglassful may be taken three or four times a day.

Candied horehound is best made from the fresh plant by boiling it down until the juice is extracted, then adding sugar before boiling this again, until it has become thick enough in consistence to pour into a paper case and be cut into squares when cool.

Two or three teaspoonsful of the expressed juice of the herb may also be given as a dose in severe colds.

Historical information from Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia

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Steep a Perfect Cup of Tea

But indeed I would rather have nothing but tea.
-Mansfield Park

A perfect pot of tea does not begin with a mug of hot water and tea bag. The perfect pot takes time and careful planning.

  1. Start with a preheated pot or cup. This prevents the tea cooling too quickly. To warm the it, pour boiling water into the pot, swish it around, and pour it out again.
  2. Use freshly drawn or bottled, not reboiled water.
  3. Bring water to a rolling boil for approximately 10 seconds. Remove kettle from heat. Don’t boil the water for too long as this will boil away the flavour-releasing oxygen.
  4. Wait until the water is just off the boil before pouring it onto the tea. This brings out the rich aroma and avoids scorching the tea.
  5. Use one tea bag per person, or Start with 3/4 of a level teaspoon of loose tea per 6 oz. of water.
  6. Steep for 3-5 minutes, according to taste. If possible, cover the teapot with a towel or tea cosy while steeping to retain heat. Remove the tea bags or leaves
  7. If you would like to add milk (milk, not cream) pour it in the cup or mug before adding the hot tea as this will allow the milk to better blend with the tea without curdling.
  8. Sweeten as preferred or serve with a slice of lemon. Infuse (steep) green tea for two minutes, semi-black tea for seven minutes, unless instructed otherwise based on the tea you have purchased. Both may be infused several times, depending on the tea you have purchased. Though they may be slightly more expensive than black tea by weight measurement, Green and Semi-black are ultimately less costly due to the number of times the leaf may be infused.

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The Regent’s or George the Fourth’s Punch

In her book, Tea with Jane Austen, author Kim Wilson gives a detailed account of this staple drink as it was served at all hours of the day, whether at Breakfast or after dinner refreshment and any time in between. Though often drunk on its own, tea was also an ingredient in a variety of other concotions, as shown by the following recipe, shared by “a person who made the punch daily for the Prince’s table…”

The Regent’s or George the Fourth’s Punch
Pare as thin as possible the rinds of two china oranges, of two lemons, and ove one seville orange, and infuse them for an hour in half a pint of thin, cold syrup; then add to them the juice of the fruit. Make a pint of strong green tea, sweeten it well with fine sugar, and when it is quite cold, add to it the fruit and syrup, with a glass of the best old Jamaica rum, a glass of Brandy, one of Arrack, one of pine-apple syrup, and two bottles of Champagnel pass the whole through a fine lawn seive until it is perfectly clear, then bottle and put it into ice until dinner is served. We are indebted for this receipt to a person who made the punch daily for the prince’s table, at Carlton palace, for six months; it has been in our possession for some years and may be relied on.
Modern Cookery for Private Families, by Eliza Acton (1849)

The prince regent, a man of large appetites in so many ways, apparently liked his punch strong. When he overindulged, as he commonly did, the tea in it may have been the only thing that kept him vertical. The recipe below is based on simpler versions from the time, and is a wonderful punch for celebrations and balls.

Regent’s Punch for the Weston’s Ball

  • 4 Large Lemons
  • 2 cups of water
  • 3 tsp loose green tea (three teabags worth)
  • 1 1/2 cup powdered sugar
  • 1 bottle chilled champagne or lemon/lime soda

Roll the lemons on a table to make them jucier. Pare the zest (only the yellow part of the rind) of the lemons. Cut the remaining white rind from the pulp, remove the seeds, then chop the pulp coarsely. Discard the white rind and the seeds. In a non-reactive pan, boil the water, pulp, and zest for 10 minutes. Let the mixture cool for 1 minute, then pour it over the tea leaves in a heat proof bowl or teapot. Stir, then let steep three minutes. Strain through a fine mesh strainer. Stir in the sugar and chill. To serve, pour the chilled mixture into a punch bowl or pitcher and stir in the chilled champagne.


From Kim Wilson’s Tea with Jane Austen.

“Tea, a social history, and author Jane Austen–Kim Wilson’s delicious little book will instruct and amuse fans of any or all three…Highly recommended.”
Tea: A Magazine

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The Story Behind A Proper Cup of Coffee

A Proper Cup of Coffee

The Rich History Behind a Proper Cup of Coffee

It is rather impertinent to suggest any household care to a housekeeper, but I just venture to say that the coffee-mill will be wanted every day while Edward is at Steventon, as he always drinks coffee for breakfast.
Jane Austen to Cassandra
June 11, 1799

The history of coffee drinking is as colorful as any food history can be. According to the The Roast and Post Coffee Company, Coffee was hardly known in Europe before the seventeenth century. European travellers, who visited Middle Eastern countries at this time, probably visited the coffee houses, where business would be transacted, or saw street coffee peddlers carrying coffee for sale in copper pots.

When these travelers returned, their reports about coffee aroused European interest in coffee. Perhaps these travelers brought back small samples of coffee beans, but the Venetians were the first people to bring larger quantities of coffee into Europe. In 1615, Venice received Europes’ first shipment of green coffee beans and the first coffee house there, Caffè Florian, opened in 1683.

Coffee was known in the first half of the 17th Century in Venice and Marseille but there was no trade in beans there. Although famous for their tea drinking, the British were the first European nation to embrace the pleasures of coffee drinking on a commercial basis. The first coffeehouse was in Oxford in 1650 where it was opened by a Turkish Jew named Jacob. More opened soon after in London in 1652 where there were soon to be hundreds – each serving their own customers.

The popularity spread through Europe to such an extent that, during the 17th and 18th centuries, there were more coffee shops in London than there are today. Coffee shops were nothing like the trendy shops that we have today. A true coffeehouse was crowded, smelly, noisy, feisty, smoky, celebrated and condemned. On the street in London you located the nearby coffeehouse by sniffing the air for roasting beans, or by looking for a wooden sign shaped to resemble a Turkish coffee pot.

It was the coffeehouses of England that started the custom of tipping waiters and waitresses. People who wanted good service and better seating would put some money in a tin labeled “To Insure Prompt Service” – hence “TIPS”.

Coffee shops then were influential places, used extensively by artists, intellectuals, merchants, bankers and a forum for political activities and developments. When they became popular in England, the coffee houses were dubbed “penny universities”. It was said that in a coffee house a man could “pick up more useful knowledge than by applying himself to his books for a whole month”. A penny was the price of a proper cup of coffee.

In 1674 The Women’s Petition Against Coffee was set up in London. Women complained that men were never to be found at home during times of domestic crises, since they were always enjoying themselves in the coffee houses. They circulated a petition protesting “the grand inconveniences accruing to their sex from the excessive use of the drying and enfeebling liquor”. A year later, King Charles II tries to suppress the coffee houses because they were regarded as hotbeds of revolution but his proclamation is revoked after a huge public outcry and the ban lasts just 11 days.

Some of the coffee houses in London became very well known with different groups of workers and soon became the kingpins around which the capital’s social, political and commercial life revolved. Jonathan’s Coffee House in Change Alley was where stockbrokers usually met – it eventually became the London Stock Exchange. Likewise, ship owners and marine insurance brokers visited Edward Lloyd’s Coffee House in Lombard Street – it too moved on and up in the world and became the center of world insurance and the headquarters of Lloyds of London.

In 1732, Johann Sebastian Bach composed his “Kafee-Kantate” or Coffee Cantata. Partly an ode to coffee and partly a stab at the movement in Germany to prevent women from drinking coffee (it was thought to make them sterile), the cantata includes the aria “Ah! How sweet coffee tastes! Lovelier than a thousand kisses, sweeter far than muscatel wine! I must have coffee…”

Coffee fever spread throughout Europe in the 18th Century and by 1715 the French had introduced coffee into the New World. Coffee consumption in Britain began to decline as import duties for coffee increased; the British East India Company concentrated on importing tea as the market began to grow.

In Europe, however, people were gradually inventing new and improved ways of making coffee and, in 1822, a Frenchman Louis Bernard Rabaut invented a machine which forced the hot water through the coffee grounds using steam instead of merely letting it drip through. The first espresso machine had been born.”

Still, coffee remained a popular drink in homes, and, as alert readers of Jane Austen’s novels will recall, it was served in the evenings, along with tea, when the gentlemen returned from their port after dinner. It was under cover of her post at the coffee pot that Elizabeth takes the courage to address Mr. Darcy again upon his return to Longbourne, after Lydia’s elopement. Tea sets of the time could contain up to 43 pieces, including 12 teacups and saucers and 12 coffee cups. Also included were a tea pot, coffee pot, sugar bowl, mote spoon and slop bowl.

This excerpt from Maria Eliza Kettleby Rundell’s New System of Domestic Cookery, London, 1808, offers the following advice for procuring a proper cup of coffee.

As you can tell, times have changed. With the invention of the coffee filter in 1908, the arduous task of clarifying (or allowing the grounds to sink to the bottom) coffee was simplified into it’s modern form. Isinglass, once so prevalent (made from the swim bladders of Sturgeon and Cod) lost place to good old grounds and water.

While the process of choosing which coffee bean to brew may be dizzying, the actual making of coffee couldn’t be simpler…once you have it down.

If beginning with a standard drip coffee maker, make sure it has been recently cleaned. Remember, that your standard drip coffee maker pot (8 cups) really only makes about 6 coffee mugs of coffee. It was (for some strange reason!) designed for tea cups which only hold about 5 or 6 ounces. Keep this in mind when measuring coffee.

Fresh roasted coffee beans are best. If you can’t roast them yourself, choose beans from a local roaster, standard bought beans will work fine, too, but, to paraphrase Mr. Elliot, we are talking about not simply good coffee, but the best.

Of second importance is the freshness and consistency of the grind. Grind the beans in the store if necessary, but a better choice is an at home grinder designed for coffee beans. (If necessary, consult How to Grind Coffee Beans Without a Grinder.) Grind only enough coffee for the pot you are making. Grounds will grow stale quickly, when exposed to air. Store your extra beans in an airtight container.

The grind, either for a drip machine or French Press, should be fairly coarse, like poppy seeds, rather than powder. Too powdery, and the grinds will clog your machine and make their way into the coffee.

One writer suggests that you “pay special attention to water temperature and quality”, stating that “the best coffee is achieved when the water is between 190-200 F when it hits the coffee grounds. Many automatic drip coffeemakers cannot heat the water to that temperature when it starts out cold. If your coffee maker produces coffee with bitter or weak flavor, try adding room temperature or hot water. On the other hand, if you have a coffee maker that’s known to make burnt-tasting coffee because the water is too hot for infusion, wet the coffee grounds first with 1/4 cup of the cold water. This temporarily prevents the grounds from exposure to too hot temperatures. ”

Good advice if needed. Use bottled, distilled or at the very least, filtered water to avoid the taste of minerals, as well as mineral buildup in your machine.

Now– decide how many cups of coffee you would like to make. Bear in mind that a large coffee pot may make mediocre coffee in smaller batches. If you normally brew 4 or fewer cups of coffee at a time, invest in a smaller pot for the purpose.

Choose the appropriate filter for your machine and add your freshly roasted, freshly ground beans, generally, 1 tbsp per 6 oz of water. You may prefer your coffee weaker or stronger than this and you can adjust accordingly, once you’ve made your first pot.

A drip machine will produce coffee in only a few minutes– but don’t leave it just sitting there! After 30 minutes or so on the hot plate, coffee grows bitter and strong. A better way to keep it piping hot and ready for drinking is to pour it into an insulated carafe once it has been brewed. For great coffee, be sure to brew only as much as is immediately desired and make it up fresh when wanted again. One nationwide coffee chain routinely dumps all its pots after 30 minutes in order to ensure fresh coffee for every customer.

Take your coffee making to the next level with a French Press machine. The French Press was developed in the 1850s and remains popular today. Simply follow the preceding instructions about roasting and grinding. Add the coffee grounds to the bottom of the machine, then boil your desired amount of water with a stove top or electric teapot. The perfect temp is just below boiling, so once the water is boiling, remove it from the heat for a few minutes. Fill your French Press with enough water for the desired number of cups and allow the beans to steep for 3-5 minutes. Depress the plunger to force the grounds to the bottom, pour and enjoy!

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Ginger Tea

And then the tea and sugar!
-Jane Austen

An herbal tea, tisane, or ptisan is an herbal infusion made from anything other than the leaves of the tea
bush (Camellia sinensis). Typically, herbal tea is simply the combination of boiling water and dried fruits,
flowers or herbs. Herbal tea has been imbibed for nearly as long as written history extends. Documents have
been recovered dating back to as early as Ancient Egypt and Ancient China that discuss the enjoyment and uses
of herbal tea.

Ginger, long been used to soothe upset stomachs and ward off colds, makes a wonderfully spicy and
invigorating tea. With its restorative properties, it would have been a natural choice for women battling
morning sickness at the start of their confinement. Lady Catherine suggests just such a “Ginger Tisane” in Jane
Odiwe’s latest novel, Mr. Darcy’s Secret.

Ginger Tea
Pour one half pint of boiling water on a teaspoonful of ginger; add sugar and milk to taste.
From How to Cook (1810)

To make your own ginger tea, bring 4 cups of water to a boil. Peel a 2″ piece of ginger root and cut it into
slices. Add the ginger to the water and let it simmer for 15-20 minutes. Strain and enjoy! Many people like
to add lemon juice or honey to their tea to enhance the flavor.

As with any natural remedy, expectant mothers should check with their health care provider before consuming
quantities of any herbal tisane.


Factual information from Wikipedia.

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Lemon Acid

In an age dominated by “instant” and ready made food, it is amusing to find advertisements, like the following, from the May, 1814 issue of Ackerman’s Repository, for early forms of “fast food”. In this case, the product is Lemon Acid, more commonly known as citric acid.

Citric acid was first isolated in 1784 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who crystallized it from lemon juice. Surprisingly, the “modern” convenience of on-the-go lemonade packets is actually nothing new! Modern citric acid or conventional lemon juice might answer for the acid in the following recipes.

Spyring and Marsden’s
Lemon Acid
For Punch, Lemonade, Sauces, and other Domestic Purposes

This Acid possesses all the grateful flavour of the lemon, makes most excellent Punch, Lemonade, Shrub, and Negus, instantly dissolve* in warm or cold water. It is also adapted for every purpose in cookery, where the lemon is required, such as sauces, jellies, &c. &c.

The constant demand for lemons, and the difficulty of obtaining them in many places, encouraged the Proprietors to offer to the Public thiss valuable Acid, which has, in domestic use, been found superior to any other article of this description, as it not only affords the acidity, but the most agreeable fragrancy of the lemon.

The convenience of this Acid for Taverns and Inns is sufficiently obvious, as it will make punch, &c. at any time of the year, equally rich as with the fruit. For balls and assemblies this elegant preparation is particularly desirable, as lemonade and negus may be made in the most easy and expeditious manner.

Families will also find it extremely useful to keep by them, it being’ so finely powdered as to dissolve immediately, which prevents the usual trouble of pushing lemons at table.

It is particularly recommended to Officers and Gentlemen when travelling, as it takes but little room, and, with the addition of sugar, will make a pleasant beverage.

Captains of ships and others going long voyages, will find it an useful addition to their stores, as it will keep good a considerable time.

The Following Proportions May Be Used For:

Punch .—A large tea-spoonful of Lemon Acid, a quarter of a pound of sugar, a quart of boiling water, half a pint of rum, and a quarter of a pint of brandy. For a tumbler, a little acid on the handle of a spoon is sufficient. It is necessary to make the sherbet rich with sugar before you add the spirits.

Lemonade .—A large tea-spoonful of the Acid, a quarter of a pound of sugar, and two pints and a half of water.

Shrub .—One gallon of rum, six pints of water, two pounds and a half of lump sugar, and one ounce bottle of Lemon Acid.

The above quantities to be varied as agreeable; also for sauces, jellies, soups, puddings, &c.

Prepared only by them, at No. 163, BOROUGH, London.

Sold in bottles at 2s. 6d. by most Oilmen, Druggists, Grocers, and Libraries, in Town and Country.

Also, their grated Lemonade, in boxes at 3s. containing powders for eight tumblers.

Their Portable Lemonade, in packets, at 2s. for eight tumblers, which also only requires the addition of water.

Spyring and Marsden request those who wish to have either of the above, to notice their name on the bottle, wrapper, and box, otlierwise they may be disappointed in not having the article they expect, as their Acid and Lemonade have been copied by several persons. They think it necessary to annex this caution, as many have been already deceived.

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English Muffins

The entrance of the tea-things at seven o’clock was some relief; and luckily Mr and Mrs Edwards always drank a dish extraordinary and ate an additional muffin when they were going to sit up late, which lengthened the ceremony almost to the wished-for moment.
The Watsons

Oh, do you know the muffin man? He was a common enough character in Jane Austen’s day- even garnering a mention in Persuasion! English styled muffins (different from the modern quickbread version) were made of yeast raised dough and baked on a hot cast iron griddle. They are thought to have originated in 10th century Wales.

These early muffins were the fare of the lower classes and didn’t see the fashionable tea table until the 17-1800’s. As tea became a meal in itself, many cooks tried to out do each other with elaborate pastry and iced confections. For those not given to sweets, however, English Muffins, toasted and buttered, could be just as delicious. Growing in popularity throughout the 19th century, the muffin became the “most fancied” bread on the Island and English Muffin factories sprang up all over England. Muffin men, hawking their wares in city streets, were a common sight.

Because they bake so quickly, a plate of steaming hot muffins soon became a tea table staple. Served in their own silver dish, the muffins would be split, toasted over an open fire, buttered and served, sometimes with jam or preserves. English muffins and their American equivalents were also served at breakfast- as they are to this day.

One of Jane Austen’s distant relations, Mrs Lybbe-Powys kept a household journal much like Martha Lloyd’s. In it, she records this recipe:

half a Gallon of Flour, half a pint of Yeast, put as much water as will make it about the thickness of paste, stir a little salt into it and beat it well over nigh. ye next morning lay a clean Cloth on the table and flour it, then turn ye past out of the pan and make them up with your hands into small flat Cakes. they must be baked upon an Iron plate of ye Fire and when half done turn’d.

English Muffins
4 cups of flour
1 1/2 packets of yeast
1 1/2 cups warm water or milk
1 tablespoon of Salt
1/2 teaspoon white sugar (to feed the yeast)
cast iron griddle

Pour the water into a bowl and add the yeast and sugar. When the yeast is soft, add the flour and salt. Mix thoroughly. Dough will be very sticky.

Coat your hands in flour before kneading the dough. While kneading, continue to add small amounts of flour to the dough until the stickiness disappears and the dough becomes more solid. You may find you add as much as 1/2 cup more flour during this process.

Put the dough in a large bowl, cover with a towel, and leave in a warm place overnight. The dough should more than double by morning. The underside of the dough may be a bit sticky — if so, knead it a bit more. Using your hands, shape the muffins into small golf-ball sized balls. Set the muffins aside, cover with a towel, and let rise for an hour.

Preheat ungreased griddle over medium heat. Add shaped muffins to griddle and cook for about five minutes on each side.

The muffins will look like biscuits on the outside and English muffins on the inside. Serve immediately. Makes two dozen small muffins.

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